PURPOSE The objective of this study was to identify trends in the use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in cataract surgery in Japan. DESIGN This was a national survey by mail or interview. METHODS The use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in cataract surgery was evaluated by conducting a survey in 6 regions within Japan from October 1, 2011, to March 1, 2012. RESULTS Responses were received from 285 (75%) of the 387 surgeons who were surveyed. The results revealed that 89% (255/285) administered ophthalmic antibiotic ointment. Forty-seven percent (133/285) used antibiotics in forms other than ophthalmic ointments within 6 hours after surgery, 7% (19/285) used eyedrops, 24% (67/285) used antibiotics via an irrigation bottle, 1% (2/285) used intracameral injections, and 24% (69/285) used subconjunctival injections. CONCLUSIONS Although poor intraocular penetration of ophthalmic ointments has been reported, ophthalmic ointments are widely used. The fact that antibiotics should ideally be administered within 6 hours after surgery is not widely recognized. However, intracameral injection, which achieves much higher antibiotic concentration in the anterior chamber than other methods, is a technique that should be widely acknowledged.