A History of Vitamin E

@article{Niki2012AHO,
  title={A History of Vitamin E},
  author={Etsuo Niki and Maret G. Traber},
  journal={Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism},
  year={2012},
  volume={61},
  pages={207 - 212}
}
  • E. Niki, M. Traber
  • Published 2012
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) was discovered nearly 100 years ago because it was required to prevent fetal resorption in pregnant, vitamin E-deficient rats fed lard-containing diets that were easily oxidizable. The human diet contains eight different vitamin E-related molecules synthesized by plants; despite the fact that all of these molecules are peroxyl radical scavengers, the human body prefers α-tocopherol. The biological activity of vitamin E is highly dependent upon regulatory mechanisms that… Expand
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  • M. Traber
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  • Advances in nutrition
  • 2014
TLDR
This review discusses health aspects where inadequate vitamin E status is detrimental and additional vitamin E has reversed the symptoms and provides suggestions for avenues for research. Expand
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  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Lipid Research
  • 2013
TLDR
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TLDR
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Vitamin E and Phosphoinositides Regulate the Intracellular Localization of the Hepatic α-Tocopherol Transfer Protein*
TLDR
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TLDR
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Intracellular Transport of Fat‐Soluble Vitamins A and E
TLDR
The interaction of β‐TTP with phosphoinositides plays a critical role in the intracellular transport of α‐tocopherol and is associated with familial vitamin E deficiency, and the mechanisms and biological significance are summarized. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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References

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TLDR
The claim is made that alpha-tocopherol's major vitamin function, if not only function, is that of a peroxyl radical scavenger, which is to maintain the integrity of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membranes of cells and thus maintain their bioactivity. Expand
Affinity for α‐tocopherol transfer protein as a determinant of the biological activities of vitamin E analogs
TLDR
The affinity of vitamin E analogs for αTTP is one of the critical determinants of their biological activity, and there was a linear relationship between the relative affinity and the known biological activity obtained from the rat resorption‐gestation assay. Expand
Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C
TLDR
Direct observation of the interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C and the resulting vitamin E radical then reacting with vitamin C to regenerate vitamin E is reported, which is felt to be an important feature in the maintenance of vitamin E levels in tissues. Expand
Delayed-onset ataxia in mice lacking α-tocopherol transfer protein: Model for neuronal degeneration caused by chronic oxidative stress
  • T. Yokota, K. Igarashi, +8 authors H. Arai
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
TLDR
This therapy almost completely corrects the abnormalities in a mouse model of human neurodegenerative disease and α-TTP−/− mice may prove to be excellent animal models of delayed onset, slowly progressive neuronal degeneration caused by chronic oxidative stress. Expand
Prevention of Tocopherol-mediated Peroxidation in Ubiquinol-10-free Human Low Density Lipoprotein (*)
TLDR
These findings confirm that the prooxidant activity of α-TOH in LDL relies heavily on the segregation of water-insoluble radicals into individual LDL particles, since it was those compounds that were expected to either irreversibly reduceα-TO• or accelerate the diffusion of radicals between particles which most effectively inhibited the tocopherol-mediated phase of peroxidation. Expand
Vitamin E in human low-density lipoprotein. When and how this antioxidant becomes a pro-oxidant.
TLDR
It is proposed that perodixation is propagated within lipoprotein particles by reaction of the vitamin E radical with polyunsaturated fatty acid moieties in the lipid, which explains how reagents which reduce the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical strongly inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitamin E-containing LDL. Expand
Impaired ability of patients with familial isolated vitamin E deficiency to incorporate alpha-tocopherol into lipoproteins secreted by the liver.
TLDR
It is suggested that four patients with familial isolated vitamin E deficiency and six control subjects are lacking or have a defective liver "tocopherol binding protein" that incorporates alpha-ocopherol into nascent VLDL. Expand
Discrimination between forms of vitamin E by humans with and without genetic abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism.
TLDR
It is shown that there is no discrimination between the three tocopherols during absorption and secretion in chylomicrons, but subsequently there is a preferential enrichment of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) with RRR-alpha-tocopherol. Expand
Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency is caused by mutations in the α–tocopherol transfer protein
TLDR
The finding of αTTP gene mutations in AVED patients substantiates the therapeutic role of vitamin E as a protective agent against neurological damage in this disease. Expand
Tocopherols and tocotrienols in membranes: a critical review.
TLDR
This review will outline what is known about the location and behaviour of tocols in phospholipid bilayers to assist researchers when designing new experiments and when critically assessing the results, in turn providing a more thorough understanding of the biochemistry of to cols. Expand
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