A History of Infant Feeding

  title={A History of Infant Feeding},
  author={Emily E Stevens and Thelma E. Patrick and Rita H. Pickler},
  journal={Journal of Perinatal Education},
  pages={32 - 39}
The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother’s breastmilk. Society’s negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal’s milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the… 

1. Historical aspects of formula feeding

Now that the initial goal of reducing morbidity and mortality has been achieved and the short-term benefits of artificial feeding have been proven, the industry is trying to understand the long-term effects of this practice on children’s health and development.

Clinical Question: In post-partum first-time mothers, what interventions are successful for helping women sustain exclusive breast feeding for one month or more?

Breastfeeding is a practice widely encouraged by healthcare professionals for infants’ health and confers benefits to mothers, such as partial birth control, more rapid weight loss and a decreased risk of developing endometrial cancer.

Introduction: Trends and issues in breastfeeding and the use of infant formula

  • M. Guo
  • Medicine
    Human Milk Biochemistry and Infant Formula Manufacturing Technology
  • 2021
The history of bottle-feeding, and its advantages and disadvantages compared with breastfeeding, are discussed and trends and new developments in infant formula formulation and manufacturing are reviewed.

Breastfeeding in the Course of History

A strong movement is noticed worldwide attempting to convince societies and healthcare professionals on the innumerable advantages of breastfeeding for the mother, the infants and in the long-term for the health systems.

12 – Infant formula

Comparison and Behavioral of the Breast, Formula and Mix Feeding Related to Infant Health from Birth Up to One Year

In conclusion, exclusive breast milk for a new born is the best recommended, and it is regularly sufficient for the first six months of life, and the amount and quality of supplementary food are significant to assure good health and improvement.

Maternal Breastfeeding or Wet Nursing? Religion, Persecution, and Ideology in the 17th Century.

  • J. PalmaF. Palma
  • Medicine
    Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
  • 2020
Not so many years ago, wet nursing was a mainstream practice and became a well-organized profession with contracts and laws to regulate its practice, but it was never devoid of stigmatization.

Evolution of Preterm Infant Nutrition from Breastfeeding to an Exclusive Human Milk Diet: A Review.

Preliminary evidence suggests that the health benefits of adopting an EHMD (or avoiding cow milk products) early in life may last into adulthood, as well as the importance of high-quality manufacturing standards for producing safe and effective human milk-based products.


This article examines the concept of medical feeding that has emerged in the United States. Artificial nutrition and hydration emphasizes artificiality and medical technology. By contrast, the daily

Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.



Infant feeding in the 20th century: formula and beikost.

  • S. Fomon
  • Medicine
    The Journal of nutrition
  • 2001
The early years of the 20th century were notable for improvements in general sanitation, dairying practices and milk handling, but few infants were breast-fed or formula fed after 4-6 mo of age, and iron deficiency was prevalent.

Breast is best for babies.

The management of common breastfeeding issues, such as breast engorgement, sore nipples, mastitis and insufficient milk, is discussed and breastfeeding should be initiated as soon after delivery as possible.

Breast milk. Best source of nutrition for term and preterm infants.

Low breastfeeding rates and public health in the United States.

  • J. H. Wolf
  • Medicine
    American journal of public health
  • 2003
Infant feeding practices and resulting public health campaigns in the early 20th and 21st centuries are described and lessons in the original campaigns for the promoters of breastfeeding today are found.

Feeding Behavior of Infants

  • L. Carmichael
  • Medicine
    The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
  • 1937

Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants—a prospective birth cohort study

Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a preventive effect on the early development of allergic disease—that is, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and suspected allergic rhinitis, up to 2 years of age.

Association between infant breastfeeding and overweight in young children.

There are inconsistent associations among breastfeeding, its duration, and the risk of being overweight in young children, and breastfeeding continues to be strongly recommended, but may not be as effective as moderating familial factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, in preventing children from becoming overweight.

Five-year follow-up of high-risk infants with family history of allergy who were exclusively breast-fed or fed partial whey hydrolysate, soy, and conventional cow's milk formulas.

  • R. Chandra
  • Medicine
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • 1997
Exclusive breast-feeding or feeding with a partial whey hydrolysate formula is associated with lower incidence of atopic disease and food allergy, and this is a cost-effective approach to the prevention of allergic disease in children.

Relation of infant diet to childhood health: seven year follow up of cohort of children in Dundee infant feeding study

The probability of respiratory illness occurring at any time during childhood is significantly reduced if the child is fed exclusively breast milk for 15 weeks and no solid foods are introduced during this time.

IDDM and Milk Consumption: A case-control study in São Paulo, Brazil

The results suggest that a shorter duration of exclusive breast-feeding is a risk factor for IDDM and that the introduction to cow's milk products before age 8 days is arisk factor for the disease.