A Historical Overview of Computer Architecture

@article{Smith1988AHO,
  title={A Historical Overview of Computer Architecture},
  author={Richard E. Smith},
  journal={Annals of the History of Computing},
  year={1988},
  volume={10},
  pages={277-303}
}
  • Richard E. Smith
  • Published 1988
  • Computer Science
  • Annals of the History of Computing
Computer architecture concentrates on the logical aspects of computer design as opposed to the physical or electronic aspects. The underlying logical design of most modern computers is still based on that of the earliest electronic computers despite decades of progress in electronic circuitry. the innovations that have occurred in computer architecture have been driven by two different goals: higher performance and lower cost. Performance driven improvements have yielded computer systems with… Expand
Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955
  • P. Ceruzzi
  • Computer Science
  • IEEE Ann. Hist. Comput.
  • 1997
TLDR
The author examines a few systems that reveal especially well the nature of this transition: the ensembles of punched card equipment used by L.J. Comrie (1932) and W. Eckert (1984) for scientific instead of business use. Expand
From Parallel Programs to Customized Parallel Processors
TLDR
A novel Multicore Application-Specific Instruction Set Processor (MCASIP) co-design methodology that exploits parallel programming languages as the application input format that enables scaling the customized processors both at the instruction and task levels to efficiently exploit the parallelism in the input program up to the implementation constraints such as the memory bandwidth or the chip area. Expand
The Appearance of a Neatly Finished Box
TLDR
Evidence is presented that suggests that calculating and tabulating machines were not as important in engineering as the authors would expect based on the canonical emphasis on these machines as inherently technically superior and evidence that shows that, in comparison to other computing artifacts of the 1914 Exhibition, calculating machines were more compatible with the pursuit of the further advancement of the capitalist division-of-computing labor. Expand
The Origins of the Architectural Metaphor in Computing: Design and Technology at IBM, 1957–1964
  • David Halsted
  • Computer Science
  • IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
  • 2018
TLDR
In this study, it is argued that computer architecture represents more than a simple terminological transfer from one field of practice to another. Expand
Overview of ILP Architectures
TLDR
This chapter traces the history of computer architecture, focusing on the evolution of techniques for instruction-level parallelism, and focuses on the development of out-of-order, pipelined, and multiple-issue processors. Expand
Instruction Level Parallelism
TLDR
ILP techniques have found wide and crucial application in Design Automation, where they have been used extensively in the optimization of performance as well as area and power minimization of computer designs. Expand
What Drives Exponential Improvements?
TLDR
The drivers of exponential improvements in performance and cost are illuminated and can help to recognize when new technologies might become economically feasible and thus create appropriate policies for promoting improvements. Expand
Code Density and Energy Efficiency of Exposed Datapath Architectures
TLDR
This article analyzes instruction encodings for different exposed datapath variations and considers the energy required to fetch the additional instruction bits in comparison to the register file access savings achieved with the exposeddatapath. Expand
The long time lag between science and commercialization: The case of computers
  • J. Funk
  • Engineering
  • 2010 IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation & Technology
  • 2010
This paper analyzes a rarely addressed issue: the long time lag between scientific advances and the commercialization of them. Using the history of computers, it shows that the long time lag betweenExpand
The ingenuity of common workmen: and the invention of the computer
ion bore remarkable resemblance in concept to the modern digital computer, although there is evidence that Turing may have thought at the time about eventually building one.125 Hilbert wanted toExpand
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 131 REFERENCES
A VLSI RISC
TLDR
The hypothesis is that by reducing the instruction set one can design a suitable VLSI architecture that uses scarce resources more effectively than a CISC, and expects this approach to reduce design time, design errors, and the execution time of individual instructions. Expand
Computer Structures: Principles and Examples
TLDR
The purpose of this book is to discuss these topics through an exploration of the design principles used in contemporary computer structures through a presentation of the concepts of computer classes and evolution. Expand
A SECOND SURVEY OF DOMESTIC ELECTRONIC DIGITAL COMPUTING SYSTEMS..
Abstract : Based on the results of a third survey, the engineering and programming characteristics of 222 different electronic digital computing systems are given. The data are presented from theExpand
On the design of display processors
TLDR
The flexibility and power needed in the channel for a computer display are considered and it is found that successive improvements to the display processor design lie on a circular path, by making improvements one can return to the original simple design plus one new general purpose computer for each trip around. Expand
Design objectives for the IBM stretch computer
  • S. Dunwell
  • Computer Science
  • AIEE-IRE '56 (Eastern)
  • 1956
TLDR
Present computer speeds, remarkable as they are, still fall short of the requirements of many of today's business and technical applications. Expand
The Lincoln TX-2 computer development
  • W. Clark
  • Computer Science, Engineering
  • IRE-AIEE-ACM '57 (Western)
  • 1957
TLDR
The TX-2 is the newest member of a growing family of experimental computers designed and constructed at the Lincoln Laboratory of M.I.T. as part of the study and development of large-scale, digital computer systems suitable for control in real time and incorporates several new developments in components and circuits, memories, and logical organization. Expand
The CRAY-1 computer system
TLDR
The CRAY-1 is the only computer to have been built to date that satisfies ERDA's Class VI requirement (a computer capable of processing from 20 to 60 million floating point operations per second) and its Fortran compiler (CFT) is designed to give the scientific user immediate access to the benefits of the Cray-1's vector processing architecture. Expand
IBM's Early Computers
In describing the technical experiences of one company from the beginning of the computer era, this book unfolds the challenges that IBM's research and development laboratories faced, theExpand
Micro-programming and the design of the control circuits in an electronic digital computer
TLDR
Fear of complicating unduly the control circuits of the machines has prevented the designers of electronic machines from providing such facilities as orders for floating-point operations, although experience with relay machines and with interpretive subroutines has shown how valuable such orders are. Expand
9 – A New Architecture for Minicomputers–The DEC PDP-11
TLDR
This chapter focuses on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11, the first computer of a computer family, which is designed to span a range of functions and performance. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...