A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms

  title={A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms},
  author={Michael A. Ruggiero and Dennis P. Gordon and Thomas M. Orrell and Nicolas Bailly and Thierry Bourgoin and Richard C. Brusca and T Cavalier-smith and Michael D. Guiry and Paul M. Kirk},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
We present a consensus classification of life to embrace the more than 1.6 million species already provided by more than 3,000 taxonomists’ expert opinions in a unified and coherent, hierarchically ranked system known as the Catalogue of Life (CoL). The intent of this collaborative effort is to provide a hierarchical classification serving not only the needs of the CoL’s database providers but also the diverse public-domain user community, most of whom are familiar with the Linnaean conceptual… 

Tables from this paper

Proposal for practical multi-kingdom classification of eukaryotes based on monophyly and comparable divergence time criteria
This work proposes an alternative classification system for the domain Eukarya to improve hierarchical taxonomical comparability for animals, plants, fungi and multiple protist groups and proposes 32 kingdoms of eukaryotes that are treated in 10 subdomains.
A community‐derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns
A modern, comprehensive classification for lycophytes and ferns, down to the genus level, utilizing a community‐based approach, that uses monophyly as the primary criterion for the recognition of taxa, but also aims to preserve existing taxa and circumscriptions that are both widely accepted and consistent with the understanding of pteridophyte phylogeny.
Stop the Abuse of Time! Strict Temporal Banding is not the Future of Rank-Based Classifications in Fungi (Including Lichens) and Other Organisms
  • R. Lücking
  • Biology
    Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences
  • 2019
The temporal banding approach to classification of Lecanoromycetes (lichenized Fungi) is critically revised, pointing out strengths and flaws, and “best practice” recommendations are given how to employ this technique properly and with care to improve existing classifications while avoiding unnecessary disruptions.
Revisions to the Classification, Nomenclature, and Diversity of Eukaryotes
It is confirmed that eukaryotes form at least two domains, the loss of monophyly in the Excavata, robust support for the Haptista and Cryptista, and suggested primer sets for DNA sequences from environmental samples that are effective for each clade are provided.
Reconciliation of taxonomy with laboratory fish research communities
A feasible solution from the standpoint of avoiding taxonomic name changes if possible is proposed, especially with respect to the zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822), whose family name could change.
Divergence and ranking of taxa across the kingdoms Animalia, Fungi and Plantae
It is found that groups of Animalia classified as phyla, classes, orders and families, diverged earlier as compared to those of the kingdoms Fungi and Plantae, which suggests that animal taxonomists have been more liberal when splitting ranks at the phylum, class and order levels, while at the family level the ranking across kingdoms is comparable.
Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes
This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution for more taxa than previous versions, based on more densely sampled phylogenetic trees.
Taxallnomy: an extension of NCBI Taxonomy that produces a hierarchically complete taxonomic tree
An algorithm is developed that takes the tree structure from NCBI Taxonomy and generates a hierarchically complete taxonomic table, maintaining its compatibility with the original tree, and it is named Taxallnomy because it contains names for all taxonomic-ranks.
High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses
An updated phylum- and class-level fungal classification accounting for monophyly and divergence time so that the main taxonomic ranks are more informative and an example of testing evolutionary ecological hypotheses based on a global soil fungal data set is provided.
Microbial Ecology: Current Advances from Genomics, Metagenomics and Other Omics
Traditional taxonomic classification of bacteria could be replaced with a quasispecies model because the cumulative number of new genes discovered increases with the number of genomes studied as a power law and subsequently leads to the lack of evidence for a unique core genome within closely related organisms.


Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity
It is demonstrated that supergroup taxonomies are unstable and that support for groups varies tremendously, indicating that the current classification scheme of eukaryotes is likely premature.
To name or not to name: Criteria to promote economy of change in Linnaean classification schemes.
It is concluded that not all TNCs lead to equally informative and stable taxonomies and provides a workflow scheme to guide the procedure of taxonomic decisions concerning the creation or modification of supraspecific classifications.
The New Higher Level Classification of Eukaryotes with Emphasis on the Taxonomy of Protists
This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists, and proposes a scheme that is based on nameless ranked systematics.
A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III
A formal classification of the land plants that is compatible with the APG III classification is proposed, and two new names are established: Amborellanae and Austrobaileyanae.
Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness
For the kingdom Animalia, 1,552,319 species have been described in 40 phyla in a new evolutionary classification. Among these, the phylum Arthropoda alone represents 1,242,040 species, or about 80%
Animal evolution: Interrelationships of living Phyla
This volume is unique in concentrating on the fauna of the Middle East so it has descriptions of the anatomy of many animals rarely even mentioned in traditional invertebrate texts, for example bivalve anatomy is illustrated by Spathopsis and Coelatura, and earthworms by Aporrectodea and Pheretima.
“Evolutionary” classifications do not have any information content—a reply to Stuessy and Hörandl
The author examines the arguments advanced by proponents of the acceptance of paraphyletic taxa in the botanical literature to examine if any of them stood up to critical evaluation, and finds none of the claims to be convincing.
The importance of comprehensive phylogenetic (evolutionary) classification—a response to Schmidt‐Lebuhn's commentary on paraphyletic taxa
The review of paraphyly in botanical systematics by Schmidt‐Lebuhn brings together a number of useful perspectives for the reader. It fails to offer new ideas, however, and it does not recognize the
The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes
This revision of the classification of eukaryotes retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees.
Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness (Addenda 2013).
The kingdom Animalia is here estimated to have a total of 1,659,420 described species in 40 phyla, among these, the most successful phylum Arthropoda alone represents 1,302,809 species, or about 78.5% of the total.