A Habitable Fluvio-Lacustrine Environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

@article{Grotzinger2014AHF,
  title={A Habitable Fluvio-Lacustrine Environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars},
  author={John P. Grotzinger and Dawn Y. Sumner and Linda C. Kah and Kathryn M. Stack and S. Gupta and Lauren Ashley Edgar and David M. Rubin and Kevin W. Lewis and Juergen Schieber and Nicolas Mangold and Ralph E. Milliken and Pamela G. Conrad and david. j. desmarais and Jack D. Farmer and Kirsten L. Siebach and F. J. Calef and Joel A. Hurowitz and Scott M. McLennan and Doug W. Ming and David T. Vaniman and Joy Crisp and Ashwin R. Vasavada and Kenneth S. Edgett and Michael C. Malin and David Blake and Ralf Gellert and Paul R. Mahaffy and Roger C. Wiens and Sylvestre Maurice and J. A. Grant and S. A. Wilson and R. C. Anderson and Luther W. Beegle and Raymond E. Arvidson and Bernard Hallet and Ronald S. Sletten and M. Rice and Jimmy D Bell and J. L. Griffes and Bethany L. Ehlmann and R. B. Anderson and Thomas F. Bristow and William E. Dietrich and Gilles Dromart and Jennifer Eigenbrode and Abigail A. Fraeman and Craig Hardgrove and Kenneth E. Herkenhoff and Louise Jandura and Gary A. Kocurek and S. Lee and Laurie A. Leshin and Richard L{\'e}veill{\'e} and Daniel Limonadi and Justin N. Maki and Scott McCloskey and Michael A Meyer and Michelle E. Minitti and Horton E. Newsom and Dorothy Oehler and A. Okon and Marisa C. Palucis and Timothy J. Parker and Scott K. Rowland and M. E. Schmidt and Steven W. Squyres and Andrew Steele and Edward M. Stolper and Roger Everett Summons and Allan H. Treiman and R. M. E. Williams and Aileen Yingst and Msl Team},
  journal={Science},
  year={2014},
  volume={343}
}
The Curiosity rover discovered fine-grained sedimentary rocks, which are inferred to represent an ancient lake and preserve evidence of an environment that would have been suited to support a martian biosphere founded on chemolithoautotrophy. This aqueous environment was characterized by neutral pH, low salinity, and variable redox states of both iron and sulfur species. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus were measured directly as key biogenic elements; by inference… 
Elemental Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars
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The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions during the early history of Mars.
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The authors use mineralogical rock compositions and show the once saline character of Gale Crater—a result of warmer climate periods during the Hesperian period—and redox disequilibria in secondary minerals suggest infiltration of oxidizing fluids into reducing sediments.
Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars
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Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the Mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinatedHydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.
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Mineralogy and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks and eolian sediments in Gale crater, Mars_ A review after six Earth years of exploration with Curiosity
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References

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Elemental Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars
TLDR
The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions during the early history of Mars.
Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars
TLDR
Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the Mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinatedHydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.
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Often thought of as a volcanically dominated planet, the last several decades of Mars exploration have revealed with increasing clarity the role of sedimentary processes on the Red Planet. Data from
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TLDR
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Iron-rich sediments have been deposited intermittently throughout earth history, but virtually all significant deposits of the cherty layered rock referred to as iron formation are of Precambrian
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