A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems

@article{Halpern2008AGM,
  title={A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems},
  author={Benjamin S. Halpern and Shaun Walbridge and Kimberly A Selkoe and Carrie V Kappel and Fiorenza Micheli and Caterina D'Agrosa and John F. Bruno and Kenneth S. Casey and Colin M. Ebert and Helen E. Fox and Rodney M. Fujita and Dennis Heinemann and Hunter Stanton Lenihan and E. Madin and Matthew T. Perry and Elizabeth R. Selig and Mark Spalding and Robert S. Steneck and Reg A. Watson},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={319},
  pages={948 - 952}
}
The management and conservation of the world's oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is unaffected by human influence and that a large fraction (41%) is strongly affected by multiple… Expand

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