A Functional Comparison of Animal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Models to the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Abstract

Many investigators have used animal models to clarify the role of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Because none of these models are anatomically and biomechanically identical to the human ACL, there exists a need for an objective comparison of these models. To do this, we used a universal force-moment sensor to measure and compare the in situ forces, including magnitude and direction, of the ACL and the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of human, pig, goat, and sheep knees. An Instron was used to apply 50 and 100 N anterior tibial loads at 90° of knee flexion, while a universal force-moment sensor was used to measure the forces applied by the ACL to the tibia, the in situ force of the ACL. We found significant differences between the magnitude of force experienced by the goat and sheep ACL and AM and PL bundles when compared with the human ACL and AM and PL bundles. Also, the direction of the in situ force in the ACL and AM bundles of the goat and sheep were different from the human. The pig knee differed from the human only in the magnitude and direction of the in situ force in the PL bundle in response under anterior tibial loading. A tally of the significant differences between the animal models and the human knees indicates that goat and sheep knees may have limitations in modeling the human ACL, while the pig knee may be the preferred model for experimental studies.

DOI: 10.1114/1.91

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@article{Xerogeanes1998AFC, title={A Functional Comparison of Animal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Models to the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament}, author={John Xerogeanes and Ross J. Fox and Yoshi Takeda and Hyoung-Soo Kim and Yasuyuki Ishibashi and Gregory J. Carlin and Savio L - Y . Woo}, journal={Annals of Biomedical Engineering}, year={1998}, volume={26}, pages={345-352} }