A Formal Framework for Linguistic Annotation (revised version)

  title={A Formal Framework for Linguistic Annotation (revised version)},
  author={Steven Bird and Mark Liberman},
  journal={Speech Communication},
‘Linguistic annotation’ covers any descriptive or analytic notations applied to raw language data. The basic data may be in the form of time functions – audio, video and/or physiological recordings – or it may be textual. The added notations may include transcriptions of all sorts (from phonetic features to discourse structures), part-of-speech and sense tagging, syntactic analysis, ‘named entity’ identification, co-reference annotation, and so on. While there are several ongoing efforts to… CONTINUE READING
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