A Few Bad Apples? Racial Bias in Policing

@article{Goncalves2017AFB,
  title={A Few Bad Apples? Racial Bias in Policing},
  author={Felipe M. Goncalves and Steven Mello},
  journal={American Economic Review},
  year={2017}
}
We estimate the degree to which individual police officers practice racial discrimination. Using a bunching estimation design and data from the Florida Highway Patrol, we show that minorities are less likely to receive a discount on their speeding tickets than White drivers. Disaggregating this difference to the individual police officer, we estimate that 42 percent of officers practice discrimination. We then apply our officer- level discrimination measures to various policy-relevant questions… 

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