A Fast Learning Algorithm for Deep Belief Nets


We show how to use "complementary priors" to eliminate the explaining-away effects that make inference difficult in densely connected belief nets that have many hidden layers. Using complementary priors, we derive a fast, greedy algorithm that can learn deep, directed belief networks one layer at a time, provided the top two layers form an undirected associative memory. The fast, greedy algorithm is used to initialize a slower learning procedure that fine-tunes the weights using a contrastive version of the wake-sleep algorithm. After fine-tuning, a network with three hidden layers forms a very good generative model of the joint distribution of handwritten digit images and their labels. This generative model gives better digit classification than the best discriminative learning algorithms. The low-dimensional manifolds on which the digits lie are modeled by long ravines in the free-energy landscape of the top-level associative memory, and it is easy to explore these ravines by using the directed connections to display what the associative memory has in mind.

DOI: 10.1162/neco.2006.18.7.1527
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@article{Hinton2006AFL, title={A Fast Learning Algorithm for Deep Belief Nets}, author={Geoffrey E. Hinton and Simon Osindero and Yee Whye Teh}, journal={Neural computation}, year={2006}, volume={18 7}, pages={1527-54} }