A Failed Manipulation: The British, the Oudh Bequest and the Sh i Ulama of Najaf and Karbala

  title={A Failed Manipulation: The British, the Oudh Bequest and the Sh i Ulama of Najaf and Karbala},
  author={Meir Litvak},
  journal={British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies},
  pages={69 - 89}
  • M. Litvak
  • Published 1 May 2000
  • History
  • British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies
Between 1850 and 1903, the Oudh Bequest channelled over six million rupees from India, through British mediation, to the Shi i shrine cities of Najaf and Karbala in Iraq. It has intrigued historians the way that this sophisticated British tool has exercised influence and control over the Shi i Ulama in Iran and Iraq. However, the British became directly involved in the distribution of the Bequest in 1903, on the eve of the Constitutional Revolution. In view of the ulama's growing involvement in… 
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FO 371/4198 Simla no. 61-G. From Assistant Secretary to GIFD to Acting Civil Commissioner Baghdad

    The Shȭ¨ȭs …

      Baghdad no. 3177-50-1 Wilson to Political Of cers at Najaf and Karbalā©

      • Assistant Political Of cer Karbalā© to Civil Commissioner Baghdad

      Assistant Political Of cer Karbalā© to Wilson Enclosed in Baghdad no. 26454-50-1 Wilson to Secretary to GIFPD

        FO 371/4198 Baghdad no. 17819-50-1 Wilson to Secretary to GIFPD

          Hardinge to the Secretary to the Governmen t of India in the Foreign Department

          • P/6652 GIFD-Internal Proceedings

          For Shīrāzī's refusal, see FO 248/1250 Baghdad no. 25325-50-1 Wilson to Grant

            Baghdad no. 630 Newmarch to Hardinge

            • NAI FD External A Proceedings 30-40, December 1905-Gulahek Hardinge to Newmarch

            Telegram no. D.S-337 Secretary to GIFD

              Proceedings nos 1-21-Telegram no. 139-B Cox to Secretary to GIFD