A Failed Manipulation: The British, the Oudh Bequest and the Sh i Ulama of Najaf and Karbala

@article{Litvak2000AFM,
  title={A Failed Manipulation: The British, the Oudh Bequest and the Sh i Ulama of Najaf and Karbala},
  author={Meir Litvak},
  journal={British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies},
  year={2000},
  volume={27},
  pages={69 - 89}
}
  • M. Litvak
  • Published 1 May 2000
  • History
  • British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies
Between 1850 and 1903, the Oudh Bequest channelled over six million rupees from India, through British mediation, to the Shi i shrine cities of Najaf and Karbala in Iraq. It has intrigued historians the way that this sophisticated British tool has exercised influence and control over the Shi i Ulama in Iran and Iraq. However, the British became directly involved in the distribution of the Bequest in 1903, on the eve of the Constitutional Revolution. In view of the ulama's growing involvement in… 
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