A European monitoring protocol for the stag beetle, a saproxylic flagship species

  title={A European monitoring protocol for the stag beetle, a saproxylic flagship species},
  author={Alessandro Campanaro and Livia Zapponi and S{\"o}nke Hardersen and Marcos M{\'e}ndez and Nida Al Fulaij and P. Audisio and Marco Bardiani and Giuseppe M. Carpaneto and Serena Corezzola and Francesca Della Rocca and Deborah J Harvey and Colin J. Hawes and Marcin Kadej and Jerzy Karg and Markus Rink and Adrian Smolis and Eva A. Sprecher and Arno Thomaes and Ilaria Toni and Al Vrezec and Agnese Zauli and Michele Zilioli and Stefano Chiari},
  journal={Insect Conservation and Diversity},
Developing protocols for threatened invertebrates is often challenging, because they are not only rare but also elusive. This is the case with the stag beetle (Lucanus cervus), a protected and flagship species for the saproxylic beetle fauna in Europe. We applied a standard transect walk at a European scale (8 countries, 29 transects) to test its practicability and reliability as survey design. A total of 533 sightings were recorded throughout the sampling period, but detection probability… 
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The objectives of this preliminary work were to explore the feasibility of a non-invasive method for detecting oviposition sites, to attempt the characterisation of above-ground ecological factors recorded in the ovipposition sites, and to quantify the number of traps and operators needed for obtaining a number of beetles suitable for statistical analysis.
Guidelines for the monitoring of Lucanus cervus
A suitable standard method with a suitable protocol to be used for addressing the obligations of the Habitats Directive for Lucanus cervus is proposed and, in order to assess the conservation status of populations and to compare them over time, a simple method for the calculation of a reference value is provided.
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As a member of the European Union, Croatia is obliged to report on the conservation status of 220 animal non-bird species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), for which
Use of space and dispersal ability of a flagship saproxylic insect: a telemetric study of the stag beetle (Lucanus cervus) in a relict lowland forest
Males were more prone to disperse than females but the home range size did not differ between the sexes, and the first part of the adult life, when they resulted to be more active, was studied.
Thermal effect on larval development of the European stag beetle, Lucanus cervus
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Proposal for a time-based standard sampling method for the monitoring of Gomphus flavipes (Charpentier, 1825) and Ophiogomphus cecilia (Fourcroy, 1785) (Odonata: Gomphidae)
Monitoring of conservation status is an obligation arising from Article 11 of the Habitats Directive for all species of community interest. However, the development of monitoring methods for
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The Great Capricorn beetle, Cerambyx cerdo, and Mediterranean oak habitats (Quercus ilex – 9340 and Quercus suber – 9330) are protected by the Habitats Directive (HD). However, in the Mediterranean
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The use of bottle traps and the effects of two potential baits in relation to height in the trees were tested to detect presence and assess abundance of stag beetles and flower chafers in northern Italy, an important component of forest biodiversity.
Biology and conservation of the European stag beetle: recent advances and lessons learned
Reliable information for the conservation of many insects is lacking due to a poor knowledge of their ecology. Here, we review the biological knowledge about the European stag beetle (Lucanus
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This system of international cooperation can be used for other charismatic insects in order to evaluate their threatened status and plan conservation actions and is appealed for more joint international citizen science-based monitoring initiatives assisting international red-listing and conservation actions.


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Results show that sampling a minimum of 20 hollow trees in April and May with emergence traps is recommended to obtain a meaningful survey on the presence of the Violet Click Beetle.
Monitoring presence, abundance and survival probability of the stag beetle, Lucanus cervus, using visual and odour-based capture methods: implications for conservation
Collection of adult beetles, dead or alive, by VES is the most reliable way to monitor this emblematic species, and body size influences the survival probability of stag beetles, showing a lower survival probability for larger males.
Monitoring of the saproxylic beetle Morimus asper (Sulzer, 1776) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) with freshly cut log piles
Novel mathematical models based on presence–absence or count data were compared with the most commonly used capture–recapture methods to investigate if less invasive and easier approaches may be suitable for large-scale monitoring of this species and other large saproxylic beetles.
European Red List of saproxylic beetles
This study shows that nearly 11% of saproxylic beetles are threatened, that is beetles depending on wood decay, and almost 14% of the assessed beetles (60 species) are thought to have significantly declining populations.
Monitoring of Lucanus cervus by means of Remains of Predation (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)
In Italy, Lucanus cervus (Linnaeus 1758) generally lives in oak forests characterized by the presence of old trees. Such habitats are critically rare and fragmented. L cervus is listed in Annex II of
A Red List of Italian Saproxylic Beetles: taxonomic overview, ecological features and conservation issues (Coleoptera)
The main objectives of this review are the compilation and updating of a reference database for Italian saproxylic beetles, useful to assess the trend of their populations and communities in the next decades and the creation of a baseline for future evaluations of the trends in biodiversity conservation in Italy.
Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle
The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is
Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) in Europe
The occurrence of O. eremita seems to have decreased in all European countries and is useful as an indicator and umbrella species for the preservation of the entire invertebrate community associated with hollow trees in Europe.
Radio‐telemetric monitoring of dispersing stag beetles: implications for conservation
Modelling the dispersal behaviour suggests that about 1% of males are capable of maintaining gene flux among nest sites within a radius of about 3 km, however, the colonization of new nest sites depends on the dispersed ability of females and amounts to less than 1 km.
When morphological identification meets genetic data: the case of Lucanus cervus and L. tetraodon (Coleoptera, Lucanidae)
The mitochondrial results evidenced that the two species represent well-defined genetic entities with mitochondrial DNA introgression, which could be the result of either hybridization or of a convergence of morphological characters under local selective pressures in areas of sympatric occurrence.