Peanuts are extensively cultivated around the world, providing a foodstuff that is both cheap to produce and nutritious. However, allergy to peanuts is of growing global concern, particularly given the severity of peanut-allergic reactions, which can include anaphylaxis and death. Consequently, it is important to understand the factors related to the prevalence of peanut allergy in order to inform efforts to ameliorate or pre-empt the condition. In this article we review evidence for the relevance of factors hypothesized to have some association with allergy prevalence, including both genetic and environmental factors. Although our analysis does indicate some empirical support for the importance of a number of factors, the key finding is that there are significant data gaps in the literature that undermine our ability to provide firm conclusions. We highlight these gaps, indicating questions that need to be addressed by future research.