A Dryopithecus skeleton and the origins of great-ape locomotion

@article{MoySol1996ADS,
  title={A Dryopithecus skeleton and the origins of great-ape locomotion},
  author={Salvador Moy{\`a}-Sol{\`a} and Meike K{\"o}hler},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1996},
  volume={379},
  pages={156-159}
}
THE evolution of skeletal adaptations to orthograde postures, characteristic of extant hominoids, is of great interest as it provides the key to understanding the origins of apes and humans. We report here the recent discovery of an extraordinary partial skeleton of Dryopithecus laietanus from Can Llobateres (Spain). It provides evidence that orthograde postures and locomotion appeared at least 9.5 million years ago1. Our results indicate that the body structure of this Miocene ape closely… 

A new Miocene ape and locomotion in the ancestor of great apes and humans

The fossil ape Danuvius guggenmosi (from the Allgäu region of Bavaria) is described, for which complete limb bones are preserved, which provides evidence of a newly identified form of positional behaviour—extended limb clambering in bipedalism and suspension climbing in the common ancestor of great apes and humans.

Response to Comment on "Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a New Middle Miocene Great Ape from Spain"

The new skeleton reveals that early great apes retained primitive monkeylike characters associated with a derived body structure that permits upright postures of the trunk, and suggests that Pierolapithecus is probably close to the last common ancestor of great apes and humans.

Locomotion and Posture in Ancestral Hominoids Prior to the Split of Hylobatids

The comparative dataset agrees with recent suggestions that all living apes share a diverse TO-positional repertoire, relative to that of cercopithecoid monkeys, and reevaluate differences in positional behavior of extant cercOPithecoids and hominoids.

6 Postcranial and Locomotor Adaptations of Hominoids

New fossils reveal that variation is prevalent and critical to appreciate for reconstructing hominoid evolutionary history, and it seems increasingly likely that many postcranial and locomotor specializations of great apes may have evolved from ancestors that were more generalized than are living hominoids.

Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a New Middle Miocene Great Ape from Spain

The new skeleton reveals that early great apes retained primitive monkeylike characters associated with a derived body structure that permits upright postures of the trunk, and suggests that Pierolapithecus is probably close to the last common ancestor of great apes and humans.

A Partial Skeleton of the Fossil Great Ape Hispanopithecus laietanus from Can Feu and the Mosaic Evolution of Crown-Hominoid Positional Behaviors

The combination of quadrupedal and suspensory adaptations in this Miocene crown hominoid clearly evidences the mosaic nature of locomotor evolution in the Hominoidea, as well as the impossibility to reconstruct the ancestral locomotor repertoires for crown hom inoid subclades on the basis of extant taxa alone.

The oldest ape

The history and significance of Morotopithecus bishopi, an early Miocene East African ape, and the known elements of its postcranium suggest that Morotobithecus was capable of modern ape–like positional behaviors, including vertical postures, deliberate climbing, and arm hanging.

Evolution of the hominoid vertebral column: The long and the short of it

An overview of what is known about evolution of the hominoid vertebral column is provided, focusing on the currently available anatomical evidence of three major transitions: tail loss and adaptations to orthograde posture and bipedal locomotion.

The femur of Orrorin tugenensis exhibits morphometric affinities with both Miocene apes and later hominins.

The results indicate that both hominin and modern great ape femora evolved in different directions from a primitive morphology represented by some fossil apes, consistent with femoral shape similarities in extant great apes being derived and homoplastic.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES

Body size and proportions in early hominids.

  • H. Mchenry
  • Environmental Science
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1992
These values appear to be consistent with the range of size variation seen in the entire postcranial samples that can be assigned to species, and probably those equations based on the human samples are better than those based on all Hominoidea.

Partial skeleton of Proconsul nyanzae from Mfangano Island, Kenya.

In most aspects of its anatomy, KNM-MW 13142 closely resembles nonhominoid anthropoids, and many aspects of the Proconsul nyanzae locomotor skeleton may represent the primitive catarrhine condition.

Torso morphology and locomotion in Proconsul nyanzae.

  • C. Ward
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1993
Axial and pelvic morphology of KNM-MW 13142 indicate that P. nyanzae had not undergone an ape-like rearrangement of its torso to adapt to forelimb-dominated arboreality, and indicates that the extant hominoid pattern of torso anatomy arose subsequent to the establishment of the hominid clade.

Relations among the great apes and humans: New interpretations based on the fossil great ape Dryopithecus

The phylogenetic evidence indicates that Dryopithecus is probably more closely related to the African apes and humans than is Sivapithecus, when compared closely to living forms, and shares more with gorillas.

New partial cranium of Dryopithecus lartet, 1863 (Hominoidea, Primates) from the upper Miocene of Can Llobateres, Barcelona, Spain

The analysis of the phylogenetic relationships makes us think that Dryopithecus belongs to the clade of the extant great apes and is a primitive member of the Pongo clade, and the hypothesis suggests that some of the dental and postcranial characters shared by Pongo and the African great apes are homoplasies.

Miocene fossil hominids and the chimp-human clade.

Evidence from Rudabánya, Hungary, sheds new light on the question of the evolutionary relations among living hominids, and supports the view that humans have a specific evolutionary relation with chimpanzees.

The relationships of Sivapithecus and Ramapithecus and the evolution of the orang-utan

We review here the molecular data that bear on and provide a framework for interpreting hominoid relationships. Man is shown to be most closely related to chimpanzees and gorillas among extant

Morphometric analysis of lumbar vertebra UMP 67-28: Implications for spinal function and phylogeny of the Miocene Moroto hominoid

The overall morphology of UMP 67-28 indicates that lumbar vertebrae of the Moroto hominoid were mole derived toward the great ape condition than those of Proconsul heseloni and P. nyanzae, and shares features with other dorsostable-backed mammals, suggesting that the Morotos hominoids and Proconsula possessed very different locomotor capabilities.