A Direct Empirical Proof of the Existence of Dark Matter

  title={A Direct Empirical Proof of the Existence of Dark Matter},
  author={D. Clowe and M. Brada{\vc} and Anthony H. Gonzalez and M. Markevitch and S. Randall and Christine Jones and Dennis Zaritsky Steward Observatory and Tucson and Kipac and Stanford and D. O. Astronomy and Gainesville and Cfa and Cambridge},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
We present new weak lensing observations of 1E0657-558 (z = 0.296), a unique cluster merger, that enable a direct detection of dark matter, independent of assumptions regarding the nature of the gravitational force law. Due to the collision of two clusters, the dissipationless stellar component and the fluid-like X-ray emitting plasma are spatially segregated. By using both wide-field ground based images and HST/ACS images of the cluster cores, we create gravitational lensing maps which show… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

On the proof of dark matter, the law of gravity, and the mass of neutrinos
We develop a new method to predict the density associated with weak-lensing maps of (un)relaxed clusters in a range of theories interpolating between general relativity (GR) and modified NewtonianExpand
We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 weak-lensing study of A520, where a previous analysis of ground-based data suggested the presence of a dark mass concentration. WeExpand
Revealing the Properties of Dark Matter in the Merging Cluster MACS J0025.4–1222
We constrain the physical nature of dark matter using the newly identified massive merging galaxy cluster MACS J0025.4−1222. As was previously shown by the example of the Bullet Cluster (1E065756),Expand
Light/mass offsets in the lensing cluster Abell 3827: evidence for collisional dark matter?
If dark matter has a non-zero self-interaction cross-section, then dark matter haloes of individual galaxies in cluster cores should experience a drag force from the ambient dark matter of theExpand
The recent years have seen combined measurements of X-ray and (weak) lensing contours for colliding galaxy clusters such as, for instance, the famous 'Bullet' cluster. These observations haveExpand
The dark matter of gravitational lensing
We review progress in understanding dark matter by astrophysics, and particularly via the effect of gravitational lensing. Evidences from many different directions now all imply that five sixths ofExpand
Mapping Dark Matter and Dark Energy
We measure the ellipticity of isolated clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) using gravitational lensing. We stack the clusters, rotating so that the major axes of the ellipsesExpand
Detection of universality of dark matter profile from Subaru weak lensing measurements of 50 massive clusters
We develop a novel method of measuring the lensing distortion profiles of clusters with stacking the scaled amplitudes of background galaxy ellipticities as a function of the scaled centric radiusExpand
Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding
These results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built. Expand
Offset between dark matter and ordinary matter: evidence from a sample of 38 lensing clusters of galaxies
We compile a sample of 38 galaxy clusters which have both X-ray and strong lensing observations, and study for each cluster the projected offset between the dominant component of baryonic matterExpand


Weak-lensing mass reconstruction of the interacting cluster 1E 0657-558: Direct evidence for the existence of dark matter
We present a weak-lensing mass reconstruction of the interacting cluster 1E 0657-558, in which we detect both the main cluster and a subcluster. The subcluster is identified as a smaller cluster thatExpand
Galaxy cluster masses without non-baryonic dark matter
We apply the modified acceleration law obtained from Einstein gravity coupled to a massive skew symmetric field, Fμνλ, to the problem of explaining X-ray galaxy cluster masses without exotic darkExpand
Cosmological constraints from the X-ray gas mass fraction in relaxed lensing clusters observed with Chandra
We present precise measurements of the X-ray gas mass fraction for a sample of luminous, relatively relaxed clusters of galaxies observed with the Chandra Observatory, for which independentExpand
New constraints on modified Newtonian dynamics from galaxy clusters
We revisit the application of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) to galaxy clusters. We confront the high-quality X-ray data for eight clusters of galaxies observed by the XMM-Newton satellite withExpand
Weak-Lensing Discovery and Tomography of a Cluster at z = 0.68
We report the weak-lensing discovery, spectroscopic confirmation, and weak-lensing tomography of a massive cluster of galaxies at z = 0.68, demonstrating that shear selection of clusters works atExpand
Chandra Evidence of a Flattened, Triaxial Dark Matter Halo in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 720
We present an analysis of a Chandra ACIS-S observation of the elliptical galaxy NGC 720, to verify the existence of a dark matter halo and to measure its ellipticity. The ACIS-S3 image reveals overExpand
Properties of Galaxy Dark Matter Halos from Weak Lensing
We present the results of a study of weak lensing by galaxies based on 45.5 deg2 of RC-band imaging data from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS). We define a sample of lenses with 19.5 < RC < 21Expand
The dynamical status of the cluster of galaxies 1E0657-56
We present the results of a new spectroscopic and photometric survey of the hot X-ray cluster 1E0657-56, at z =0 :296. We determine the presence of a low velocity dispersion subcluster, which is osetExpand
Constraints on MOND from the lensing cluster MS2137-23
Abstract The cluster of galaxies MS2137-23 presents the most constrained lensing configuration of gravitational images ever detected in a distant cluster of galaxies. With a set of two arc systemsExpand
Probing the Universe with Weak Lensing
▪ Abstract Gravitational lenses can provide crucial information on the geometry of the Universe, on the cosmological scenario of formation of its structures as well as on the history of itsExpand