A Decade of Glyphosate-Resistant Lolium around the World: Mechanisms, Genes, Fitness, and Agronomic Management

@inproceedings{Preston2009ADO,
  title={A Decade of Glyphosate-Resistant Lolium around the World: Mechanisms, Genes, Fitness, and Agronomic Management},
  author={Christopher Preston and Angela M. Wakelin and Fleur C. Dolman and Yazid Bostamam and Peter Boutsalis},
  booktitle={Weed Science},
  year={2009}
}
Abstract Glyphosate resistance was first discovered in populations of rigid ryegrass in Australia in 1996. Since then, glyphosate resistance has been detected in additional populations of rigid ryegrass and Italian ryegrass in several other countries. Glyphosate-resistant rigid ryegrass and Italian ryegrass have been selected in situations where there is an overreliance on glyphosate to the exclusion of other weed control tactics. Two major mechanisms of glyphosate resistance have been… 
Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) Populations Containing a Target Site Mutation in EPSPS and Reduced Glyphosate Translocation Are More Resistant to Glyphosate
TLDR
Two populations of rigid ryegrass from vineyards, SLR80 and SLR88, had 6- to 11-fold resistance to glyphosate in dose-response studies, higher than two previously well-characterized glyphosate-resistant populations of flexible ryEGrass, containing a modified target site or reduced translocation, respectively.
Restricted Herbicide Translocation Was Found in Two Glyphosate-resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) Populations from New Zealand
TLDR
It is suggested that alterations in glyphosate translocation patterns plays a major role in glyphosate resistance for Italian ryegrass populations from these New Zealand vineyards.
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TLDR
Both target-site and non-target-site mechanisms of glyphosate resistance were found in the perennial ryegrass population with 25-fold resistance, whereas only the non- Target-site mechanism of resistance was found in a population with sevenfold resistance.
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TLDR
The differences in translocation pattern for glyphosate between the resistant and susceptible populations of rigid ryegrass suggest resistance is associated with altered translocation of glyphosate in the fence line populations.
First case of glyphosate resistance in France
TLDR
The results suggest that the resistant population of L. rigidum presents three different mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate, namely reduced absorption, reduced mobility in the plants, and a mutation in the gene coding for the enzyme targeted by glyphosate.
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TLDR
A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance.
Target-Site Resistance to Glyphosate in Chloris Virgata Biotypes and Alternative Herbicide Options for its Control
TLDR
Effective herbicide options for the control of GR C. virgata are identified and target-site mutations were involved in the resistance of two biotypes to glyphosate (SGW2 and CP2), which could aid farmers in selecting herbicides to manage C.virgata in their fields.
Differential Resistance Mechanisms to Glyphosate Result in Fitness Cost for Lolium perenne and L. multiflorum
TLDR
Both non-target site and target-site mechanisms of glyphosate resistance can render Lolium spp.
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