author={Seanna L. Annis and Farahad Dastoor and Heather L. Ziel and Peter Daszak and Joyce E. Longcore},
  booktitle={Journal of wildlife diseases},
Chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Chytridiomycota) has been implicated in declines of amphibian populations on four continents. We have developed a sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction–based assay to detect this pathogen. We isolated B. dendrobatidis from captive and wild amphibians collected across North America and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA cassette of multiple isolates. We identified two primers (Bd1a and Bd2a) that are… 
Emerging Chytrid Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis, in Zoo Amphibians in Thailand
Skin swab samples revealed the typical feature of fl ask-shaped zoosporangia and septate thalli, supporting the PCR-based evidence of chytridiomycosis in captive amphibians in Thailand, but detected Bd in only 7/21 of thePCR-positive samples.
Quantitative PCR detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis DNA from sediments and water.
Filtering and amplification methods provide a new tool to investigate critical aspects of Bd in the environment and detect Bd DNA in water and sediments, without the need for testing amphibians.
Amphibian chytridiomycosis in Japan: distribution, haplotypes and possible route of entry into Japan
A nested PCR assay is established that uses two pairs of PCR primers to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of a ribosomal RNA cassette to detect mild fungal infections from as little as 0.001 pg of B. dendrobatidis DNA.
Characterization of the First Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Isolate from the Colombian Andes, an Amphibian Biodiversity Hotspot
It is found that EV001 is morphologically consistent with previously described strains, and is grouped genetically with Panamanian strains and is most similar to strain JEL203 isolated from a captive individual.
First detection of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-ranging populations of amphibians on mainland Asia: survey in South Korea.
Results confirm that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the amphibian chytrid fungus causing this disease, is present in South Korea and, hence, on the Asian mainland.
Widespread occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the southeastern USA.
Although there is no evidence of chytrid-associated declines in the authors' region, the presence of this pathogen is cause for concern given global climate change and other stressors and it is recommended that future researchers focus on potential population-level effects at sites where Bd is now known to occur.
Tracking the amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans using a highly specific monoclonal antibody and lateral‐flow technology
The generation of an IgM monoclonal antibody, 5C4, specific to Bd as well as the related salamander and newt pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is described, demonstrating the potential of the portable LFA as a rapid qualitative assay for tracking these amphibian pathogens and as an adjunct test to nucleic acid‐based detection methods.
Occurrence of the Amphibian Pathogen Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwest
This study reports results of disease screens from 210 pond-breeding amphibians from 37 field sites in Oregon and Washington and suggests that B. dendrobatidis has few geographic and host taxa limitations among North American anurans.
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and haplotypes in domestic and imported pet amphibians in Japan.
The results show that Bd is currently entering Japan via the international trade in exotic amphibians as pets, suggesting that the trade has indeed played a major role in the spread of Bd.
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis detected in Kihansi spray toads at a captive breeding facility (Kihansi, Tanzania).
This is the first study reporting molecular characteristics of Bd isolated from the Udzungwa Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot, and will be important for conservation of several endemic amphibian species in the Udzinzi Mountains, which are part of the Eastern Arc Mountains.


Multilocus sequence typing suggests the chytrid pathogen of amphibians is a recently emerged clone
Only five variable nucleotide positions were detected among 10 loci, consistent with the description of B. dendrobatidis as a recently emerged disease agent, and electrophoretic karyotyping of multiple strains demonstrated a number of chromosome length polymorphisms.
Oral Chytridiomycosis in the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog (Rana muscosa)
The presence of B. dendrobatidis in larval and recently metamorphosed mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in or near the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California is reported, an area where declines have been documented in all five species of native anurans.
Evidence for disease-related amphibian decline in Colorado
Production of polyclonal antibodies to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and their use in an immunoperoxidase test for chytridiomycosis in amphibians.
Significant cross-reactivity occurred only with some fungi in the Chytridiomycota, and there are no members of this phylum besides B. dendrobatidis that infect frogs.
Molecular phylogenetics of the Chytridiomycota supports the utility of ultrastructural data in chytrid systematics
A phylogeny of ribosomal DNA sequences coding for the small subunit gene of 54 chytrids, with emphasis on sampling the largest order, the Chytridiales, revealed homoplasy in several developmental and zoosporangial characters and suggested that the divergence times of these groups may be ancient.
Use of Immunohistochemistry to Diagnose Chytridiomycosis in Dyeing Poison Dart Frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius)
Immunohistochemical staining was applied to histologic skin sections from four experimentally infected Dyeing poison dart frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius), making this technique a valuable ancillary diagnostic test for this important disease.
Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America.
  • L. Berger, R. Speare, H. Parkes
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
Experimental data support the conclusion that cutaneous chytridiomycosis is a fatal disease of anurans, and it is hypothesize that it is the proximate cause of these recent amphibian declines.
Cutaneous Chytridiomycosis in Poison Dart Frogs (Dendrobates spp.) and White's Tree Frogs (Litoria Caerulea)
  • A. Pessier, D. Nichols, J. Longcore, M. Fuller
  • Medicine
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • 1999
The results show clear patterns in squamous cell cancer of the head and neck carcinomas that have been identified in patients with locoregional control, and these patterns are consistent with those seen in animals treated with chemotherapy.
Clinical diagnosis and treatment of epidermal chytridiomycosis in African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis).
An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of morbidity and mortality in a collection of 55 adult male Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis at the University of California, Berkeley. More than