Following thymic maturation, T cells egress as recent thymic emigrants to peripheral lymphoid organs where they undergo an additional maturation step to mature naive T cells that circulate through secondary lymphoid organs ready to be activated upon pathogenic challenges. Thymic maturation and peripheral T cell survival depend on several signaling cascades, but whether a dedicated mechanism exists that exclusively regulates homeostasis of mature naive T cells without affecting thymocytes and/or recent thymic emigrants remains unknown. In this article, we provide evidence for a specific and exclusive role of the WD repeat containing protein coronin 1 in the maintenance of naive T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs. We show that coronin 1 is dispensable for thymocyte survival and development, egress from the thymus, and survival of recent thymic emigrants. Importantly, coronin 1-deficient mice possessed comparable levels of peripheral T cells within the first 2 wk after birth but failed to populate the peripheral T cell compartment at later stages. Furthermore, dendritic cell- and IL-2/7-dependent T cell survival was found to be independent of coronin 1. Together, these results suggest the existence of a hitherto unrecognized coronin 1-dependent decision switch early during life that is responsible for peripheral naive T cell survival and homeostasis.