A Core Metabolic Enzyme Mediates Resistance to Phosphine Gas

@article{Schlipalius2012ACM,
  title={A Core Metabolic Enzyme Mediates Resistance to Phosphine Gas},
  author={David I Schlipalius and Nicholas Valmas and Andrew G. Tuck and Rajeswaran Jagadeesan and Li Ma and Ramandeep Kaur and Anita Goldinger and Cameron Anderson and Jujiao Kuang and Steven Zuryn and Yosep Seran Mau and Qiang Cheng and Patrick J. Collins and Manoj Kumar Nayak and Horst Joachim Schirra and Massimo A. Hilliard and Paul R Ebert},
  journal={Science},
  year={2012},
  volume={338},
  pages={807 - 810}
}
Dissecting Phosphine Resistance Worldwide populations of pest insects—such as the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, and the rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum—have become highly resistant to the fumigant phosphine, providing a potential threat to global food security. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans is vulnerable to phosphine, but phosphine-resistant strains are known. Schlipalius et al. (p. 807) show that mutations in the delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase and… 

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RNA-seq Analysis Reveals Mitochondrial and Cuticular Protein Genes Are Associated with Phosphine Resistance in the Rusty Grain Beetle (Coleoptera:Laemophloeidae)

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Phosphine resistance does not confer cross-resistance to sulfuryl fluoride in four major stored grain insect pests.

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Genes related to mitochondrial functions are differentially expressed in phosphine-resistant and -susceptible Tribolium castaneum

The first gene expression data on the response of phosphine-resistant and -susceptible insects to phosphine exposure is provided, and RNA-Seq is a valuable tool to examine differences in insects that respond differentially to environmental stimuli.
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References

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It is confirmed that phosphine targets the mitochondria and also indicates that direct alteration of mitochondrial function may be related to phosphine resistance, and tested whether directly manipulating mitochondrial function could influence sensitivity toward phosphine.

Caenorhabditis elegans mutants resistant to phosphine toxicity show increased longevity and cross-resistance to the synergistic action of oxygen.

Three phosphine-resistant lines in the model organism C. elegans have an extended average life expectancy of from 12.5 to 25.3%.

Gene interactions constrain the course of evolution of phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica

It is confirmed that rph1 is responsible for the moderate resistance of strain QRD369, which was collected in 1990, and is shared with a highly resistant strain from the same geographical region, QRD569, and it is suggested that the resistance phenotype will persist in the field.

The rph1 Gene Is a Common Contributor to the Evolution of Phosphine Resistance in Independent Field Isolates of Rhyzopertha Dominica

The genetic basis of phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica strains collected from New South Wales and South Australia is determined and complementation analysis reveals that all three strains contain an incompletely recessive resistance allele of the autosomal rph1 resistance gene.

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The analysis of the phenotypic fitness response of a population derived from a single pair inter-strain cross between the susceptible and strongly resistant strains indicated the changes in the level of response in the strong resistance phenotype; however this effect was not consistent and apparently masked by the genetic background of the weakly resistant strain.

The rph2 Gene Is Responsible for High Level Resistance to Phosphine in Independent Field Strains of Rhyzopertha dominica

Strong circumstantial evidence is provided that weak alleles of rph2, together with rph1, contribute to the strong resistance phenotypes of SRSA and SR2QLD, which suggests that a single sequence of genetic changes was responsible for the development of resistance in these insects.

Genetic linkage analysis of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica identifies two loci that confer high-level resistance to the fumigant phosphine.

High levels of inheritable resistance to phosphine in Rhyzopertha dominica have recently been detected in Australia and in an effort to isolate the genes responsible for resistance we have used

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The inheritance of resistance to phosphine was studied in two strains of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, and revealed that the strong resistance phenotype was coded by a combination of the genes already present in the Weak-R genotype plus an extra major, incompletely recessive gene.

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