A Core Metabolic Enzyme Mediates Resistance to Phosphine Gas

  title={A Core Metabolic Enzyme Mediates Resistance to Phosphine Gas},
  author={David I Schlipalius and Nicholas Valmas and Andrew G. Tuck and Rajeswaran Jagadeesan and Li Ma and Ramandeep Kaur and Anita Goldinger and Cameron Anderson and Jujiao Kuang and Steven Zuryn and Yosep Seran Mau and Qiang Cheng and Patrick J. Collins and Manoj Kumar Nayak and Horst Joachim Schirra and Massimo A. Hilliard and Paul R Ebert},
  pages={807 - 810}
Dissecting Phosphine Resistance Worldwide populations of pest insects—such as the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, and the rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum—have become highly resistant to the fumigant phosphine, providing a potential threat to global food security. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans is vulnerable to phosphine, but phosphine-resistant strains are known. Schlipalius et al. (p. 807) show that mutations in the delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase and… 

Phosphine resistance in India is characterised by a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase variant that is otherwise unobserved in eukaryotes

The abundance of the P45/49S variant in insect populations contrasted sharply with the evolutionary record in which the variant was absent from eukaryotic DLD sequences, suggesting that the variant is unlikely to provide a strong selective advantage in the absence of phosphine fumigation.

Minimization of energy transduction confers resistance to phosphine in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae

The data suggest that reprogrammed metabolism represents a survival strategy of SR insect pests for the compensation of minimized energy transduction under anoxic conditions and will support the development of new strategies to control insect pests.

Oxygen and Arsenite Synergize Phosphine Toxicity by Distinct Mechanisms

Results reveal two synergists with distinct modes of action of phosphine toxicity, one of which targets individuals that carry a phosphine resistance allele in the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene.

Attenuation of radiation toxicity by the phosphine resistance factor dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD)

The relationship between phosphine toxicity and genotoxic treatments is explored with the goal of understanding how phosphine works and mutant lines either sensitive or resistant to phosphine, gamma irradiation or UV exposure are utilized.

DNA markers for phosphine resistance in populations of Tribolium castaneum from Punjab, India

The utility of Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) markers is explored after phenotypic characterization of resistance to phosphine using discriminating dose assays in nine populations of red flour beetle collected from wheat storage godowns in Punjab state of India.

Role of Lipids in Phosphine Resistant Stored-Grain Insect Pests Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica

It is proposed that lipids offer a consistent energy source for the resistant insect to survive under the stress of phosphine fumigation and provide a suitable environment to protect the mitochondria from phosphine.

RNA-seq Analysis Reveals Mitochondrial and Cuticular Protein Genes Are Associated with Phosphine Resistance in the Rusty Grain Beetle (Coleoptera:Laemophloeidae)

A transcriptome-wide overview of gene expression changes between resistant and susceptible populations of C. ferrugineus is presented, which documents that mitochondria and cuticular protein genes may play together a crucial role in phosphine resistance.

Phosphine resistance does not confer cross-resistance to sulfuryl fluoride in four major stored grain insect pests.

It is concluded that phosphine resistance does not confer cross-resistance to SF in grain insect pests irrespective of the variation in levels of tolerance to SF itself or resistance to phosphine in their egg and adult stages.



Mitochondrial modulation of phosphine toxicity and resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

It is confirmed that phosphine targets the mitochondria and also indicates that direct alteration of mitochondrial function may be related to phosphine resistance, and tested whether directly manipulating mitochondrial function could influence sensitivity toward phosphine.

Caenorhabditis elegans mutants resistant to phosphine toxicity show increased longevity and cross-resistance to the synergistic action of oxygen.

Three phosphine-resistant lines in the model organism C. elegans have an extended average life expectancy of from 12.5 to 25.3%.

Gene interactions constrain the course of evolution of phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica

It is confirmed that rph1 is responsible for the moderate resistance of strain QRD369, which was collected in 1990, and is shared with a highly resistant strain from the same geographical region, QRD569, and it is suggested that the resistance phenotype will persist in the field.

The rph1 Gene Is a Common Contributor to the Evolution of Phosphine Resistance in Independent Field Isolates of Rhyzopertha Dominica

The genetic basis of phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica strains collected from New South Wales and South Australia is determined and complementation analysis reveals that all three strains contain an incompletely recessive resistance allele of the autosomal rph1 resistance gene.

Phosphine Resistance in the Rust Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Inheritance, Gene Interactions and Fitness Costs

The analysis of the phenotypic fitness response of a population derived from a single pair inter-strain cross between the susceptible and strongly resistant strains indicated the changes in the level of response in the strong resistance phenotype; however this effect was not consistent and apparently masked by the genetic background of the weakly resistant strain.

The rph2 Gene Is Responsible for High Level Resistance to Phosphine in Independent Field Strains of Rhyzopertha dominica

Strong circumstantial evidence is provided that weak alleles of rph2, together with rph1, contribute to the strong resistance phenotypes of SRSA and SR2QLD, which suggests that a single sequence of genetic changes was responsible for the development of resistance in these insects.

Detection and characterisation of strong resistance to phosphine in Brazilian Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae).

High level and frequency of resistance in all population samples, some of which had been cultured without selection for up to 12 years, suggest little or no fitness deficit associated with phosphine resistance.

Genetics of Resistance to Phosphine in Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

The inheritance of resistance to phosphine was studied in two strains of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, and revealed that the strong resistance phenotype was coded by a combination of the genes already present in the Weak-R genotype plus an extra major, incompletely recessive gene.

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural