A Conceptual Control System Description of Cooperative and Automated Driving in Mixed Urban Traffic With Meaningful Human Control for Design and Evaluation

@article{Calvert2020ACC,
  title={A Conceptual Control System Description of Cooperative and Automated Driving in Mixed Urban Traffic With Meaningful Human Control for Design and Evaluation},
  author={Simeon Craig Calvert and Giulio Mecacci},
  journal={IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems},
  year={2020},
  volume={1},
  pages={147-158}
}
  • S. Calvert, G. Mecacci
  • Published 3 September 2020
  • Business
  • IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems
The introduction of automated vehicles means that some or all operational control over these vehicles is diverted away from a human driver to a technological system. The concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) was derived to address control issues over automated systems, allowing a system to explicitly consider human intentions and reasons. Applying MHC to technological systems, such as automated driving is a real challenge, and the main focus of this article. An approach with mathematical… 

Figures from this paper

How to ensure control of cooperative vehicle and truck platoons using Meaningful Human Control
TLDR
It is concluded that current advances are making progress, but that from a MHC perspective, issues still remain for the operational and tactical implementation of truck platoons and cooperative driving that need to be addressed in regard to ODDs and drivers.
Realising Meaningful Human Control Over Automated Driving Systems: A Multidisciplinary Approach
TLDR
A framework to realise “meaningful human control” over Automated Driving Systems is presented and it is shown how the evaluation cascade table can be applied in concrete engineering use cases in combination with the definition of core components to expose deficiencies in traceability, thereby avoiding so-called responsibility gaps.
Meaningful human control: actionable properties for AI system development
How can humans remain in control of artificial intelligence (AI)-based systems designed to perform tasks autonomously? Such systems are increasingly ubiquitous, creating benefits - but also
Meaningful human control over AI systems: beyond talking the talk
TLDR
This paper argues these four properties are necessary for AI systems under meaningful human control, and provides possible directions to incorporate them into practice, and illustrates these properties with two use cases, automated vehicle and AI-based hiring.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 47 REFERENCES
A human centric framework for the analysis of automated driving systems based on meaningful human control
TLDR
The concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) is introduced as a function of a framework of the Automated Driving System (ADS), constructed through the core components that make up the ADS, primarily considered within the categories of the vehicle and driver.
Gaps in the Control of Automated Vehicles on Roads
TLDR
A potential discrepancy in AV control is suggested with the review of recently documented accidents involving AV’s and the identification of a gap in control is performed using a recently formulated moral philosophical framework of Meaningful Human Control.
Automated vehicles in smart urban environment: A review
TLDR
An overview of major functionalities that have to be provided by both road infrastructure and an automated vehicle so that the vehicle can optimally navigate through an urban network with signalized intersections is provided and the state-of-the-art publications providing approaches relevant to these core functionalities are reviewed.
Interactions between vulnerable road users and automated vehicles: A synthesis of literature and framework for future research
TLDR
A theoretical framework is proposed which describes the interactions between automated vehicles and road user behavior under different road design conditions to understand how to design safe urban environments where VRUs and automated vehicles can interact safely.
Human behaviour with automated driving systems: a quantitative framework for meaningful human control
TLDR
The concept of ‘meaningful human control’ is introduced to better address the challenges raised by ADS, and a new framework of human control over ADS is presented by means of literature-based categorisation that offers a unique, quantified perspective into the effects of ADS on human behaviour.
Human–Vehicle Cooperation in Automated Driving: A Multidisciplinary Review and Appraisal
TLDR
A review is made on key studies in human–robot interaction and human factors that will help professionals shape future directions for safer and more efficient and effective human–vehicle cooperation.
Decision-Making Framework for Automated Driving in Highway Environments
TLDR
The presented decision-making framework is tested and evaluated to verify that it can provide sufficiently reliable performance for automated driving in highway environments in terms of safety, reliability, and robustness.
Automated cars meet human drivers: responsible human-robot coordination and the ethics of mixed traffic
TLDR
It is argued that the new field of the Ethics of automated driving needs to take seriously the ethics of mixed traffic and responsible human-robot coordination, and should take seriously potential ways of making human driving more like robotic driving.
Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review
  • J. Axelsson
  • Business
    IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
  • 2017
TLDR
This paper investigates, through a systematic literature review, what is known about safety for platooning, including what analysis methods have been used, what hazards and failures have been identified, and solution elements that have been proposed to improve safety.
...
...