A Comprehensive Review of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Properties in Toxicological, Pharmacological, Cellular and Molecular Biology Researches

  title={A Comprehensive Review of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Properties in Toxicological, Pharmacological, Cellular and Molecular Biology Researches},
  author={Hamid Reza Rahimi and Mohammad Reza Arastoo and Seyed Nasser Ostad},
  journal={Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research : IJPR},
  pages={385 - 400}
Punica granatum (Pg), commonly known as pomegranate (Pg), is a member of the monogeneric family, Punicaceae, and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin. Pg and its chemical components possess various pharmacological and toxicological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines), anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis activities. They also show inhibitory effects on invasion/motility, cell cycle, apoptosis, and… 
Punica Granatum Linn.: A phytochemical and pharmacological review
The pharmacochemistry of the pomegranate ( Punica granatum Linn .) was mentioned in the literatures. The natural chemicals and the biological attributes of the plant were determined. The interested
Pomegranate Peel as a Source of Bioactive Compounds: A Mini Review on Their Physiological Functions
The production and consumption of pomegranates have always been increasing owing to their taste and nutrition. However, during fruit processing, a large number of by-products are produced, such as
Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Involved in Pomegranate-Mediated Prevention of Breast Cancer: the Role of NF-κB and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways
Findings indicate that PE-mediated prevention of DMBA-evoked mammary carcinogenesis may involve anti-inflammatory mechanisms through concurrent but differential regulation of two interrelated molecular pathways, namely NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling.
In Vivo Comparative Evaluation of the Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extract as an Alternative Agent to Nystatin against Oral Candidiasis
The results indicated that the pomegranate peel extract is a promising approach to oral candidiasis treatment, and it may serve as a natural alternative prospect due to its potency against oralCandida albicans.
Jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) Peel as a Sustainable Source of Anthocyanins and Ellagitannins Delivered by Phospholipid Vesicles for Alleviating Oxidative Stress in Human Keratinocytes
The Brazilian berry scientifically known as jabuticaba is a fruit covered by a dark purple peel that is still rich in bioactives, especially polyphenols. Considering that, this work was aimed at
Bio-active Compounds from Unani Medicinal Plants and Their Application in Urolithiasis
Botanical products are used in various forms, such as pure compound, standardized extract, etc., which are known for their remedial action against various diseases and also provide a lead for new
Physiological and Immune Functions of Punicalagin
The source, metabolism, functions and effects of punicalagin, its derivatives and metabolites are described, and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects are described.
The Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities, and Irritation Properties of Sripanya Punica granatum Peel Extract
This is the first study to investigate the effect of ethanol concentrations on the phenolic content and biological activities of Sripanya Punica granatum peel extract. Various concentrations of


Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells.
The polyphenolic phytochemicals in the pomegranate can play an important role in the modulation of inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells.
Protective effects of standardized pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenolic extract in ultraviolet-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.
Pomegranate extract was effective at protecting human skin fibroblasts from cell death following UV exposure, likely related to a reduced activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, a downregulation of proapoptotic caspase-3, and an increased G0/G1 phase, associated with DNA repair.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) pure chemicals show possible synergistic inhibition of human PC-3 prostate cancer cell invasion across Matrigel™
Four pure chemicals, ellagic acid (E), caffeic acid (C), luteolin (L) and punicic Acid (P), all important components of the aqueous compartments or oily compartment of pomegranate fruit, were tested as potential inhibitors of in vitro invasion of human PC-3 prostate cancer cells in an assay employing Matrigel™ artificial membranes.
Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice intake on hepatic oxidative stress
Protection against protein and DNA oxidation was found in PJ group and RT-PCR results showed that GST and GS transcription were also decreased in this group, compatible with a protective effect of PJ against systemic oxidative stress in mice.
Antioxidant activities of pomegranate fruit extract and its anthocyanidins: delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin.
It is suggested that the above anthocyanidins contribute to the antioxidant activity of pomegranate fruits.
Pomegranate Ellagitannin–Derived Compounds Exhibit Antiproliferative and Antiaromatase Activity in Breast Cancer Cells In vitro
Pomegranate ET–derived compounds have potential for the prevention of estrogen-responsive breast cancers, and urolithin B (UB) was shown to most effectively inhibit aromatase activity in a live cell assay.
In vitro studies on the binding, antioxidant, and cytotoxic actions of punicalagin.
In vitro cytotoxic studies against three cell lines, namely, Vero (normal African green monkey kidney cell line), Hep-2 (human larynx epithelial cancer cell line, and A-549 (human small cell lung carcinoma cell line) showed that this polyphenol is toxic only at higher concentration.
Pomegranate juice effects on cytochrome P450S expression: in vivo studies.
Pomegranate juice consumption decreased total hepatic CYP content as well as the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A, and Prevention of procarcinogen activation through CYP activity/expression inhibition may be involved in pomegranATE juice's effect on tumor initiation, promotion, and progression.