A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude in the Parallel, Full, and Front Squat Variations in Resistance-Trained Females.

@article{Contreras2016ACO,
  title={A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude in the Parallel, Full, and Front Squat Variations in Resistance-Trained Females.},
  author={Bret Contreras and Andrew David Vigotsky and Brad Jon Schoenfeld and Chris Beardsley and John B. Cronin},
  journal={Journal of applied biomechanics},
  year={2016},
  volume={32 1},
  pages={
          16-22
        }
}
Front, full, and parallel squats are some of the most popular squat variations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare mean and peak electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the upper gluteus maximus, lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis of front, full, and parallel squats. Thirteen healthy women (age = 28.9 ± 5.1 y; height = 164 ± 6.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 ± 6.4 kg) performed 10 repetitions of their estimated 10-repetition maximum of each respective variation. There… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Article Title: A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis EMG Amplitude in the Parallel, Full, and Front Squat Variations in Resistance Trained Females
TLDR
It can be concluded that the front, full, or parallel squat can be performed for similar levels of EMG activity, however, given the results of previous research, it is recommended that individuals utilize a full range of motion when squatting, assuming full range can be safely achieved, in order to promote more favorable training adaptations.
A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude for the Barbell, Band, and American Hip Thrust Variations.
TLDR
It is recommended that resisted bridging exercise be prescribed according to the individual's preferences and desired outcomes.
Muscle activation in hip-extensor exercises
TLDR
The barbell deadlift was clearly superior in activating the biceps femoris compared to the hex b ar deadlift and hip thrust, whereas the hip thrust provided the highest gluteus maximus activat ion.
Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with Submaximal and Maximal Loading
TLDR
Overall muscle activities increased with increasing loads, but significant increases were seen only for vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during 90% and 100% of 1RM compared to 80% while there was no significant difference between 90%and 100% for any muscle.
Muscle Activation in Unilateral Barbell Exercises: Implications for Strength Training and Rehabilitation.
TLDR
The SLS is likely to induce the greatest improvements in gluteus medius strength, whereas the RFESS should be preferred if high hamstring coactivation is desired, although absolute loading differs between exercises.
Evaluation of Muscle Activities During Different Squat Variations Using Electromyography Signals
TLDR
EMG activities of Erector spinae and semitendinosus during Hack squat were significantly lower than all other squat variations, which may suggest that front squats may be chosen to focus on quadriceps muscles while Hack squat may be a good choice for better knee and spinal stabilization.
Muscle Activation Differs Between Partial And Full Back Squat Exercise With External Load Equated.
TLDR
The range of motion in the back squat alters muscle activation of the prime mover (gluteus maximus), and stabilizers (soleus and biceps femoris) when performed with the load equated on a relative basis.
ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC COMPARISON OF BARBELL DEADLIFT, H EX BAR DEADLIFT AND HIP THRUST EXERCISES: A CROSS-OVER STU DY Running head: Muscle activation in hip-extensor exercises
TLDR
The barbell deadlift was clearly superior in activating the biceps femoris compared to the hex b ar deadlift and hip thrust, whereas the hip thrust provided the highest gluteus maximus activat ion.
Effects of squat training with different depths on lower limb muscle volumes
TLDR
It is suggested that full squat training is more effective for developing the lower limb muscles excluding the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles.
Gluteus Maximus Activation during Common Strength and Hypertrophy Exercises: A Systematic Review.
TLDR
The step-up exercise and its variations present the highest levels of GMax activation followed by several loaded exercises and its variation, such as deadlifts, hip thrusts, lunges, and squats, to assist practitioners in selecting exercised for strengthening GMax.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 65 REFERENCES
Kinematic and EMG activities during front and back squat variations in maximum loads
TLDR
The results may suggest that the front squat may be preferred to the back squat for knee extensor development and for preventing possible lumbar injuries during maximum loading.
The Effect of Back Squat Depth on the EMG Activity of 4 Superficial Hip and Thigh Muscles
TLDR
The results suggest that the GM, rather than the BF, the VMO, or the VL, becomes more active in concentric contraction as squat depth increases.
Electromyographic and Kinetic Comparison of the Back Squat and Overhead Squat
TLDR
The results of the study do not support the hypothesis that the overhead squat provides a substantially greater stimulus for developing the trunk musculature compared with the back squat.
A Comparison of Free Weight Squat to Smith Machine Squat Using Electromyography
TLDR
The free weight squat may be more beneficial than the Smith machine squat for individuals who are looking to strengthen plantar flexors, knee flexor spinae, and knee extensors.
Lower extremity muscle functions during full squats.
The purpose of this research was to determine the functions of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior
Electromyographic analysis of gluteus medius and gluteus maximus during rehabilitation exercises.
TLDR
Higher %MVIC values achieved during performance of exercises correlate to muscle hypertrophy, and exercises may be rank ordered to appropriately challenge the gluteal musculature during rehabilitation.
The Effect of Stance Width on the Electromyographical Activity of Eight Superficial Thigh Muscles During Back Squat With Different Bar Loads
TLDR
Findings suggest that a large width is necessary for a greater activation of the gluteus maximus during back squats.
Stance width and bar load effects on leg muscle activity during the parallel squat.
TLDR
The results suggest that stance width does not cause isolation within the quadriceps but does influence muscle activity on the medial thigh and buttocks.
Differences in Rate of Increased Patellofemoral Joint Reaction Force in the Back Squat Exercise: 2593
TLDR
The rate of increase in PFJRF was significantly higher for below-parallel squats and when progressing from an unloaded squat to a 50% 1RM squat, which means that when designing training progressions that utilize the back squat exercise, health professionals should use caution.
An Electromyographical Comparison of Trunk Muscle Activity During Isometric Trunk and Dynamic Strengthening Exercises
TLDR
The PB may be the most suitable exercise for strengthening the RA, compared to dynamic exercises at a low to moderate load, because of a higher level of muscle activity.
...
...