A Cocoon of Freshly Accelerated Cosmic Rays Detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble

@article{Ackermann2011ACO,
  title={A Cocoon of Freshly Accelerated Cosmic Rays Detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble},
  author={Markus Ackermann and Marco Ajello and Alice Allafort and Luca Baldini and Jean Ballet and Guido Barbiellini and Denis Bastieri and Andrea Belfiore and Ronaldo Bellazzini and Bijan Berenji and R. Blandford and Elliott D. Bloom and Emanuele Bonamente and A. W. Borgland and Eugenio Bottacini and Monica Brigida and P. Bruel and Roland Buehler and Silvio Buson and Giuseppe Andrea Caliandro and R. A. Cameron and Patricia A. Caraveo and Jean Marc Casandjian and Claudia Cecchi and A. Chekhtman and C. C. Cheung and James Chiang and Stefano Ciprini and Reitlinger Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and Alessandro De Angelis and Francesco de Palma and Charles D. Dermer and E. do Couto e Silva and P. S. Drell and Denis Dumora and Cecilia Favuzzi and Stephen Fegan and W. B. Focke and Pascal D. Fortin and Y. Fukazawa and Piergiorgio Fusco and Fabio Gargano and S Germani and N. Giglietto and F. Giordano and Marcello Giroletti and Tom Glanzman and Gh Godfrey and Isabelle A. Grenier and Lucas Guillemot and S. Guiriec and D. Hadasch and Yoshitaka Hanabata and Alice K. Harding and Morihiro Hayashida and Kazuhito Hayashi and E. Hays and Guðlaugur J{\'o}hannesson and A. S. Johnson and Tuneyoshi Kamae and Hiroyuki Katagiri and Jun Kataoka and M. Kerr and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and Michael Kuss and Joshua Lande and Luca Latronico and S.-H. Lee and Francesco Longo and Francesco Loparco and B. Lott and Michael N. Lovellette and Pasquale Lubrano and P. G. Martin and Mario Nicola Mazziotta and Julie Mcenery and J. Mehault and P. F. Michelson and W. Mitthumsiri and T. Mizuno and Claudia Del Monte and M. E. Monzani and A. Morselli and Igor V. Moskalenko and Simona Murgia and Melitta Naumann-Godo and P. L. Nolan and J. P. Norris and Eric Nuss and T. Ohsugi and Akira Okumura and E. Orlando and Jonathan F. Ormes and M. Ozaki and D. Paneque and Damien Parent and Melissa Pesce-Rollins and Marco Pierbattista and F. Piron and M. Pohl and D. Yu. Prokhorov and S. Rain{\'o} and Riccardo Rando and Massimiliano Razzano and Thierry Reposeur and Steven M. Ritz and P. M. Saz Parkinson and Carmelo Sgro’ and Eric J. Siskind and P. D. Smith and Paolo Spinelli and A. W. Strong and H. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and J. G. Thayer and Jana Thayer and D. J. Thompson and Luigi Tibaldo and Diego F. Torres and Gino Tosti and Andrea Tramacere and Eleonora Troja and Y. Uchiyama and Justin Vandenbroucke and Vlasios Vasileiou and G. Vianello and Vincenzo Vitale and A. P. Waite and P. Wang and B. L. Winer and Ks S. Wood and Z. Yang and Stephen Zimmer and Sylvain Bontemps},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={334},
  pages={1103 - 1107}
}
Cosmic rays can be accelerated in the cavities carved by the stellar winds created by clusters of massive stars. The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has… 
The Fermi LAT view of Cygnus: a laboratory to understand cosmic-ray acceleration and transport
Cygnus X is a conspicuous massive-star forming region in the Local Arm of the Galaxy at ~1.4 kpc from the solar system. Gamma-ray observations can be used to trace cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with
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The identification of the main contributors to the locally observed fluxes of cosmic rays is a prime objective in the resolution of the long-standing enigma of the source of cosmic rays. We report on
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The Orion-Eridanus superbubble, formed from the winds and the explosions of Orion’s massive stars, could be a cosmic-ray acceleration site. Inside the superbubble, the large level of
The Galactic Spatial Distribution of OB Associations and Their Surrounding Supernova-Generated Superbubble
Core collapse supernovae of massive (> 8 Mo) stars are formed primarily in OB associations and help blow giant superbubbles, where their collective shocks accelerate most of the Galactic cosmic rays.
Suzaku Observation of the Fermi Cygnus Cocoon: The Search for a Signature of Young Cosmic-Ray Electrons
The origin of Galactic cosmic rays remains unconfirmed, but promising candidates for their sources are found in star-forming regions. We report a series of X-ray observations, with Suzaku, toward the
Embedded star clusters as sources of high-energy cosmic rays: Modelling and constraints
Massive stars are mainly found in stellar associations. These massive star clusters occur in the heart of giant molecular clouds. The strong stellar wind activity in these objects generates large
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Because cosmic rays are charged particles scrambled by magnetic fields, combining direct measurements with other observations is crucial to understanding their origin and propagation. As energetic
Supernovae in compact star clusters as sources of high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos
Abstract We discuss a specific population of galactic PeVatrons which may be the source of the galactic CR component well above PeV energies. Supernovae in compact clusters of massive stars are
The Cosmic-Ray and Gas Content of the Cygnus Region as Measured in Gamma Rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope
The Cygnus region hosts a giant molecular-cloud complex which actively forms massive stars. Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and radiation fields make it shine at gamma-ray energies.
COSMIC RAY PRODUCTION
Massive stars blow powerful stellar winds throughout their evolutionary stages from the main sequence to Wolf-Rayet phases. The amount of mechanical energy deposited in the interstellar medium by the
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