ECG-Cryptography and Authentication in Body Area Networks
A Certificate Less Encryption and Signature Scheme with Efficient Revocation for Securing Inter-Body Wireless Sensor Network (IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 124) All rights reserved by www.ijste.org 722 Fig. 1: A typical wireless body area networks. Despite of the potential benefits, it is desirable and more prudent to secure WBANs due to the sensitive nature of the medical data collected by WBANs, open medium ofvthe communication channel and the ad hoc nature of thevWBANs , . Taking the extra-body communication invWBANs as an example, there are several security goals avpractical communication protocol must achieve, including: Anonymity: The adversary may establish the profile ofva particular WBAN client by eavesdropping the communicating activities of this client. Thus, it is essential to protect the anonymity of the WBAN clients, and any failures to do so may result in violation of WBAN clients privacy and raise legal issues. Mutual authentication: On one hand, the malicious adversary can access the service free of charge by impersonating as the legitimate WBAN clients. On the other hand, the malicious attacker may extract the sensitive personal health data from the target WBAN client by mounting the AP impersonation attack. Thus, the mutual authentication should be offered between the WBAN clients and requested remote AP. Session key establishment: Due to the sensitive nature of the data collected by the medical sensors, a session key should be established between WBAN client and the requested AP to secure their subsequent communication. This study is devoted to investigating the basic cryptographic primitive for meeting these desired properties. Applications Of WBANS: WBAN applications can be categorized based on the type of sensors/actuators, radio systems, network topologies, and use cases. We enumerate here several pioneer healthcare WBAN research projects, as well as platforms for HCI applications. WBANS for Healthcare: WBANs extend conventional bedside monitoring to ambulatory monitoring, providing a point of care to patients, the elderly, and infants in both hospital-based and home-based scenarios. Monitoring, autonomous diagnostic, alarm, and emergency services, as well as management of electronic patient record databases can all be integrated into one system to better serve people. WBANS for HCI: Traditional computer interfaces, like keyboards, mice, joysticks, and touch screens, are all replaceable by potential WBAN devices capable of automatically recognizing human motions, gestures, and activities. Disabled people can benefit from novel WBAN platforms based on a series of miniature sensors. The intra-body communications (IBC) applications proposed in  can be used to assist handicapped people. For example, an IBC enabled sensor embedded inside the shoes of a blind person can be used to send voice information such as the current location to him/her by an IBC enabled facility, such as a doorway or crosswalk. IBC enabled eyeglasses that can display texts, working with IBC enabled speakers, can help deaf people comprehend audio broadcast announcements. II. LITERATURE SURVEY Enabling Technologies For Wireless Body Area Networks: A Survey And Outlook A wireless body area network is a radio-frequency-based wireless networking technology that interconnects tiny nodes with sensor or actuator capabilities in, on, or around a human body. In a civilian networking environment, WBANs provide ubiquitous networking functionalities for applications varying from healthcare to safeguarding of uniformed personnel. This article surveys pioneer WBAN research projects and enabling technologies. It explores application scenarios, sensor/actuator devices, radio systems, and interconnection of WBANs to provide perspective on the trade-offs between data rate, power consumption, and network coverage. Finally, a number of open research issues are discussed. Advantages: A Certificate Less Encryption and Signature Scheme with Efficient Revocation for Securing Inter-Body Wireless Sensor Network (IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 124) All rights reserved by www.ijste.org 723 Uses ZIGBEE for low data rate and low power consumption and network coverage. A Survey On Intrabody Communications For Body Area Network Applications: The rapid increase in healthcare demand has seen novel developments in health monitoring technologies, such as the body area networks (BAN) paradigm. BAN technology envisions a network of continuously operating sensors which measure critical physical and physiological parameters e.g., mobility, heart rate and glucose levels. Wireless connectivity in BAN technology is key to its success as it grants portability and flexibility to the user. While radio frequency (RF) wireless technology has been successfully deployed in most BAN implementations, they consume a lot of battery power, are susceptible to electromagnetic interference and have security issues. Intrabody communication (IBC) is an alternative wireless communication technology which uses the human body as the signal propagation medium. IBC has characteristics that could naturally address the issues with RF for BAN technology. This survey examines the on-going research in this area and highlights IBC core fundamentals, current mathematical models of the human body, IBC transceiver designs, and the remaining research challenges to be addressed. IBC has exciting prospects for making BAN technologies more practical in the future. Advantages: Uses human body for interaction, that overcomes the limitations of radio frequency wireless network. Disadvantages: Low battery power. Less security. Sensor Networks For Medical Care: Sensor networks have the potential to greatly impact many aspects of medical care. By outfitting patients with wireless, wearable vital sign sensors, collecting detailed real-time data on physiological status can be greatly simplified. However, there is a significant gap between existing sensor network systems and the needs of medical care. In particular, medical sensor networks must support multicast routing topologies, node mobility, a wide range of data rates and high degrees of reliability, and security. This paper describes our experiences with developing a combined hardware and software platform for medical sensor networks, called CodeBlue. CodeBlue provides protocols for device discovery and publish/subscribe multihop routing, as well as a simple query interface that is tailored for medical monitoring. We have developed several medical sensors based on the popular MicaZ and Telos mote designs, including a pulse oximeter, EKG and motion-activity sensor. We also describe a new, miniaturized sensor mote designed for medical use. We present initial results for the CodeBlue prototype demonstrating the integration of our medical sensors with the publish/subscribe routing substrate. We have experimentally validated the prototype on our 30-node sensor network test bed, demonstrating its scalability and robustness as the number of simultaneous queries, data rates, and transmitting sensors are varied. We also study the effect of node mobility, fairness across multiple simultaneous paths, and patterns of packet loss, confirming the system’s ability to maintain stable routes despite variations in node location and data rate. Advantages: Codeblue provides protocols for device discovery and publish multihop routing. ECG sensors to get data from client. Disadvantages: Codeblue Lack of reliable communication. Lack of security The Advanced Health And Disaster Aid Network: A Light-Weight Wireless Medical System For Triage Advances in semiconductor technology have resulted in the creation of miniature medical embedded systems that can wirelessly monitor the vital signs of patients. These lightweight medical systems can aid providers in large disasters who become overwhelmed with the large number of patients limited resources, and insufficient information. In a mass casualty incident, small embedded medical systems facilitate patient care, resource allocation, and real-time communication in the Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N). We present the design of electronic triage tags on light weight, embedded systems with limited memory and computational power. These electronic triage tags use non-invasive, biomedical sensors (pulse oximeter, electrocardiogram and blood pressure cuff) to continuously monitor the vital signs of a patient and deliver pertinent information to first responders. This electronic triage system facilitates the seamless collection and dissemination of data from the incident site to key members of the distributed emergency response community. The real-time collection of data through a mesh network in a mass casualty drill was shown to approximately triple the number of times patients that were triaged compared with the traditional paper triage system. Advantages: It gives information from incident site to key members of community. It consumes very low power and less energy. It is error-prone and burdensome. A Certificate Less Encryption and Signature Scheme with Efficient Revocation for Securing Inter-Body Wireless Sensor Network (IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 124) All rights reserved by www.ijste.org 724 GRS: The Green, Reliability, and Security of Emerging Machine to Machine Communications Machine-to-machine communications is characterized by involving a large number of intelligent machines sharing information and making collaborative decisions without direct human intervention. Due to its potential to support a large number of ubiquitous characteristics and achieving better cost efficiency, M2M communications has quickly become a market-changing force for a wide variety of real-time monitoring applications, such as remote e-healthcare, smart homes, environmental monitoring, and industrial automation. However, the flourishing of M2M communications still hinges on fully understanding and managing the existing challenges: energy efficiency (green), reliability, and security (GRS). Without guaranteed GRS, M2M communications cannot be widely accepted as a promising communication paradigm. In this article, we explore the emerging M2M communications in terms of the potential GRS issues, and aim to promote an energy-efficient, reliable, and secure M2M communications environment. Specifically, we first formalize M2M communications architecture to incorporate three domains — the M2M, network, and application domains — and accordingly define GRS requirements in a systematic manner. We then introduce a number of GRS enabling techniques by exploring activity scheduling, redundancy utilization, and cooperative security mechanisms. These techniques hold promise in propelling the development and deployment of M2M communications applications. Advantages: Energy efficient Reliable Secure M2M communication ECG-Cryptography And Authentication In Body Area Networks: Wireless body area networks (BANs) have drawn much attention from research community and industry in recent years. Multimedia healthcare services provided by BANs can be available to anyone, anywhere, and anytime seamlessly. A critical issue in BANs is how to preserve the integrity and privacy of a person’s medical data over wireless environments in a resource efficient manner. This paper presents a novel key agreement scheme that allows neighbouring nodes in BAN stosh area common key generated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The improved Jules Sudan (IJS) algorithm is proposed to set up the key agreement forth message authentication. The proposed ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data communications over BANs in a plug-n-play manner without any key distribution overheads. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve better security performance in terms of several performance metrics such as false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) than other existing approaches. In addition, the power consumption analysis also shows that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve energy efficiency for BANs. Advantages: The ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data communication in plug n play manner. Consumes less power Certificateless Remote Anonymous Authentication Schemes For Wireless Body Area Networks: Wireless body area network (WBAN) has been recognized as one of the promising wireless sensor technologies for improving healthcare service, thanks to its capability of seamlessly and continuously exchanging medical information in real time. However, the lack of a clear in-depth defence line in such a new networking paradigm would make its potential users worry about the leakage of their private information, especially to those unauthenticated or even malicious adversaries. In this paper, we present a pair of efficient and light-weight authentication protocols to enable remote WBAN users to anonymously enjoy healthcare service. In particular, our authentication protocols are rooted with a novel certificateless signature (CLS) scheme, which is computational, efficient, and provably secure against existential forgery on adaptively chosen message attack in the random oracle model. Also, our designs ensure that application or service providers have no privilege to disclose the real identities of users. Even the network manager, which serves as private key generator in the authentication protocols, is prevented from impersonating legitimate users. The performance of our designs is evaluated through both theoretic analysis and experimental simulations, and the comparative studies demonstrate that they outperform the existing schemes in terms of better trade-off between desirable security properties and computational overhead, nicely meeting the needs of WBANs. Advantages: Efficient and secure. Service provider has no privilege to disclose real identity of users. It meets the need of WBAN’S. III. EXISTING SYSTEM In exiting system the centre generates two keys for both WBAN client and application provider. There is an authentication b/w both client and AP. Certificateless Remote authentication protocol and Certificateless encryption is used. A Certificate Less Encryption and Signature Scheme with Efficient Revocation for Securing Inter-Body Wireless Sensor Network (IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 124) All rights reserved by www.ijste.org 725 Drawbacks Of Existing System: Increased routing overhead that leads to increase In the data leakage. Time delay increases due to long authentication process.