A Century of Grading Research

  title={A Century of Grading Research},
  author={Susan M. Brookhart and Thomas R. Guskey and Alex J. Bowers and James H. McMillan and Jeffrey K. Smith and Lisa F. Smith and Michael T. Stevens and Megan E. Welsh},
  journal={Review of Educational Research},
  pages={803 - 848}
Grading refers to the symbols assigned to individual pieces of student work or to composite measures of student performance on report cards. This review of over 100 years of research on grading considers five types of studies: (a) early studies of the reliability of grades, (b) quantitative studies of the composition of K–12 report card grades, (c) survey and interview studies of teachers’ perceptions of grades, (d) studies of standards-based grading, and (e) grading in higher education. Early… 

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