A Case of Useful Short-Spaced Bipolar Pacing of a Left Ventricular Lead to Avoid Phrenic Nerve Stimulation.


A 48-year-old woman underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation. Coronary sinus (CS) venography showed only one adequate anterior branch for a left ventricular lead. We were able to introduce a quadripolar left ventricular lead (Medtronic 4398-88 cm) to the distal portion of the anterior branch. Although phrenic nerve stimulation… (More)
DOI: 10.1536/ihj.15-212


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