A CMOS imager with digital phase readout for fluorescence lifetime imaging

@article{Guo2011ACI,
  title={A CMOS imager with digital phase readout for fluorescence lifetime imaging},
  author={Jian Guo and Sameer R. Sonkusale},
  journal={2011 Proceedings of the ESSCIRC (ESSCIRC)},
  year={2011},
  pages={115-118}
}
This paper presents a novel CMOS image sensor with direct digital phase output for fluorescence lifetime imaging applications. The phase-shift between intensity modulated excitation signal and emitted fluorescence is extracted utilizing a zero-crossing detection algorithm as a time-domain delay signal. A Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) is subsequently used to quantize the time delay into digital output. A prototype sensor chip consisting of 32×32 passive pixel array, row-parallel phase… CONTINUE READING
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