A Brief History of Carbon Monoxide and Its Therapeutic Origins.

  title={A Brief History of Carbon Monoxide and Its Therapeutic Origins.},
  author={Christopher P. Hopper and Paige N Zambrana and Ulrich Goebel and Jakob Wollborn},
  journal={Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry},
It is estimated that 10% of carbon throughout the cosmos is in the form of carbon monoxide (CO) [1]. Earth's earliest prebiotic atmosphere included the trinity of gasotransmitters CO, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), for which all of life has co-evolved with [2]. Speculation for extraterrestrial life in harsh environments is similarly based on harnessing atmospheric CO as a primary energy source [3]. The history of CO can be loosely traced to mythological and prehistoric origins… 
1 Citations
Gasotransmitters for the Therapeutic Prevention of Hypertension and Kidney Disease
The current knowledge of NO, CO, and H2S implicated in pregnancy, including in physiological and pathophysiological processes, is described, highlighting their key roles in hypertension and kidney disease.


Friend or foe? Carbon monoxide and the mitochondria
The body of evidence supporting a physiological role for CO is immense and continues to move forward as CO is being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials ( www.clinicaltrials. gov, Identifier: NCT 01727167).
Antibacterial effects of carbon monoxide.
Data is reviewed suggesting that CO-RMs are more effective inhibitors of respiration than is CO gas, perhaps due to the ability of CO- RMs to deliver CO selectively to intracellular targets.
Evolutionary and comparative aspects of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide
This review examines the role NO, CO and H(2)S played in early life and their regulatory roles in oxygen delivery during the course of vertebrate evolution.
Biological signaling by carbon monoxide and carbon monoxide-releasing molecules.
How the binding of CO with key ferrous hemoproteins serves as a posttranslational modification that regulates important processes as diverse as aerobic metabolism, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial bioenergetics is discussed.
Strategies toward Organic Carbon Monoxide Prodrugs.
  • X. Ji, B. Wang
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Accounts of chemical research
  • 2018
This Account describes the work in this area as well as the demonstration for these organic CO prodrugs to recapitulate CO's pharmacological effects both in vitro and in vivo and proposes a new concept of "enrichment triggered CO release" by conjugating both components with a mitochondria-targeting moiety to achieve targeted CO delivery with improved biological outcomes.
Carbon monoxide in intensive care medicine—time to start the therapeutic application?!
The current understanding of carbon monoxide’s biology and its possible organ targets to treating the critically ill patients in tomorrow's ICU are summarized.
Carbon monoxide: innovative anti-inflammatory properties of an age-old gas molecule.
  • L. Otterbein
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Antioxidants & redox signaling
  • 2002
CO at low concentrations, concentrations that are well below those that would otherwise create toxic effects, is proving beneficial in models of acute injury and is proving to be an extraordinary signaling molecule generated by the cell that is vital in the regulation of cellular homeostasis.
Carbon monoxide poisoning: investigations and treatment.
This chapter presents various investigations on the health effect of carbon monoxide, and concludes that cells contained a respiratory enzyme that is poisoned by carbon Monoxide.
Where is the Clinical Breakthrough of Heme Oxygenase-1 / Carbon Monoxide Therapeutics?
Heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting step in the degradation of heme to biliverdin, ferrous ion, and carbon monoxide (CO), is an ancestral protective enzyme conserved across phylogenetic domains.
The neurotoxicology of carbon monoxide – Historical perspective and review
Concepts of how recent developments in the understanding of CO toxicology explain the particular susceptibility of the central nervous system to the effects of CO exposure are illustrated are illustrated.