A Birth-Season/DRD4 Gene Interaction Predicts Weight Gain and Obesity in Women with Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Seasonal Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis

  title={A Birth-Season/DRD4 Gene Interaction Predicts Weight Gain and Obesity in Women with Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Seasonal Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis},
  author={Robert Levitan and Mario Masellis and Raymond W. Lam and Allan S. Kaplan and Caroline A. Davis and Subi Tharmalingam and Bronwyn E Mackenzie and Vincenzo Santo Basile and James L. Kennedy},
We have recently described an association between the hypofunctional 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), weight gain, and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In the current study, we examined whether season-of-birth might interact with the 7R allele to influence body weight regulation in SAD. In 182 female probands with SAD, we performed an analysis of covariance predicting maximum lifetime body mass index (BMI) with both the exon-3 variable number… 

A Season-of-Birth/DRD4 Interaction Predicts Maximal Body Mass Index in Women with Bulimia Nervosa

Analysis of covariance predicting maximum lifetime body mass index (BMI) using season-of-birth, DRD4 genotype (7R present/absent), and past history of anorexia nervosa as independent variables offers further evidence that season of birth interacts with the 7R allele of DRD 4 to influence body weight regulation in female overeating populations.

A DRD4 gene by maternal sensitivity interaction predicts risk for overweight or obesity in two independent cohorts of preschool children

Many children who carry the 7R allele of DRD4 appear to be more influenced by maternal sensitivity as it relates to overweight/obesity risk, consistent with a plasticity effect.

Possible association of the DRD4 gene with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in women with bulimia nervosa.

Although DRD4 may not be associated with the diagnosis of BN, its variants are associated with a history of childhood ADHD in BN probands, which may have relevance for the understanding, prevention, and treatment of Bn that evolves in the context of Childhood ADHD.

PET Analysis of the Effect of Season, Seasonal Affective Disorder and Light Therapy on Serotonin Transporter Binding

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by recurrent major depressive episodes during fall-winter with remission in spring-summer. SAD has an annual prevalence of 1-6% with higher rates at

Predicted DRD4 prefrontal gene expression moderates snack intake and stress perception in response to the environment in adolescents

Results are consistent with a differential susceptibility model in which genes influencing environmental responsiveness interact with environments varying in obesogenicity to confer behavioral obesity risk in a less favorable environment, but behavioral obesity protection in a favorable one.

Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors

These results provide tentative support for the hypothesis that SOB modifies the behavioral expression of dopaminergic genetic polymorphism and suggest that S OB should be included in future studies of risky behaviors and behavioral genetic studies of the dopamine system.



Childhood Inattention and Dysphoria and Adult Obesity Associated with the Dopamine D4 receptor Gene in Overeating Women with Seasonal Affective Disorder

In overeating women with SAD, the 7R allele of DRD4 may be associated with a unique developmental trajectory characterized by attentional deficits and dysphoria in childhood and mild to moderate obesity in adulthood.

No evidence for involvement of polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in anorexia nervosa, underweight, and obesity.

Family and twin studies suggest a genetic contribution to the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Genes involved in weight regulation can be considered as candidate genes for AN. The

Seasonality of birth in seasonal affective disorder.

Besides genetic factors, season of birth or seasonal changes in environmental factors also could influence the development of SAD, and birth effects seem to be dependent on the symptom profile of the patients, but further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these observations.

Human dopamine D4 receptor gene: frequent occurrence of a null allele and observation of homozygosity.

The distribution of the mutation was found to be similar in healthy controls and patients suffering from psychiatric diseases which included schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and Tourette's syndrome, indicating that heterozygosity for this mutation in the DRD4 gene is not causally related to major psychiatric diseases.

Evidence of positive selection acting at the human dopamine receptor D4 gene locus

  • Y. DingH. Chi R. Moyzis
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
It is shown by DNA resequencing/haplotyping of 600 DRD4 alleles, representing a worldwide population sample, that the origin of 2R–6R alleles can be explained by simple one-step recombination/mutation events and the 7R allele originated as a rare mutational event that nevertheless increased to high frequency in human populations by positive selection.

Seasonality of births in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a review of the literature

The thrifty phenotype hypothesis.

It is proposed that the epidemiological associations between poor fetal and infant growth and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome result from the effects of poor nutrition in early life, which produces permanent changes in glucose-insulin metabolism.