A 2.1 MHz Crystal Oscillator Time Base with a Current Consumption under 500 nA

@article{Aebischer1996A2M,
  title={A 2.1 MHz Crystal Oscillator Time Base with a Current Consumption under 500 nA},
  author={D. Aebischer and H. Oguey and V. von Kaenel},
  journal={ESSCIRC '96: Proceedings of the 22nd European Solid-State Circuits Conference},
  year={1996},
  pages={60-63}
}
A micro-power circuit is encapsulated with a 2.1 MHz ZT-cut quartz in a vacuum package. The oscillator core has 2 complementary active MOSFETS and amplitude stabilization. New coupling and biasing circuits, and dynamic frequency dividers allow to achieve ±2 ppm frequency stability down to 1.8 V with a current under 0.5 ¿A. 
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