In recent years, deferred rendering, dating back to [Saito and Takahashi 1990], has gained in popularity for rendering in real time, especially in games. A deferred-rendering pipeline is good at dealing with many lights. However, it is not suited for handling arbitrary materials because it splits lighting and shading calculations. To overcome this drawback, Forward+ was developed [Harada et al. 2012]. Forward+ retains the ability to use a lot of lights, which is the primary advantage of a deferred-rendering pipeline, while it eliminates most of the restrictions, such as limited material variety and hardware anti-aliasing supports, at a lower computation cost. Forward+ has been already adapted in some games [Thomas 2012].
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