A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity.

  title={A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity.},
  author={Je Ware and Mark Kosinski and S. D. Keller},
  journal={Medical care},
  volume={34 3},
Key MethodRegression methods were used to select and score 12 items from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to reproduce the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales in the general US population (n=2,333). The resulting 12-item short-form (SF-12) achieved multiple R squares of 0.911 and 0.918 in predictions of the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores, respectively. Scoring algorithms from the general population…

Replicability of SF-36 summary scores by the SF-12 in stroke patients.

The SF-12 can be used at the summary score level as a substitute for the SF-36 in stroke survivors capable of self-report under conditions where the mental health summary scores of proxy assessments are influenced by patient age, thereby limiting the replicability of theSF-36.

Psychometric Properties of the Brazilian 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2)

Initial evidence was showed in favor of using the SF-12v2 as a measure of physical and mental health in the Brazilian context and convergence validity was tested with measures of health-related self-care, subjective happiness, life satisfaction, depression and self-efficacy.

Construct validity of the SF-12 in three different samples.

These observations challenge the validity and interpretability of SF-12 scores among the elderly, people with PD and stroke survivors, and the standard orthogonally weighted SF- 12 scoring algorithm is cautioned against.

Is the SF-12 version 2 Health Survey a valid and equivalent substitute for the SF-36 version 2 Health Survey for the Chinese?

The SF-12v2 was valid, reliable and sensitive for the Chinese and is an equivalent substitute for the SF-36v2 for the summary scales.

Validity of SF-12 summary scores in a Greek general population

Evidence on the validity of the Greek version of the 12-item Health Survey is provided and its use in Greek health status studies as a brief, yet valid, alternative to the SF-36 is supported.

Using the 12-item Short Form health survey (SF-12) to measure quality of life among older people

  • U. Jakobsson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Aging clinical and experimental research
  • 2007
The instrument generally showed acceptable validity and reliability, except for its factor structure, and new determinants for non-respondents of SF-12 were found, such as type of living conditions, being worried about health, and social network.

Correlated physical and mental health summary scores for the SF-36 and SF-12 Health Survey, V.1

Correlated physical and mental health summary scores for the SF-36 and SF-12 derived from an obliquely rotated factor solution should be used along with the uncorrelated summary scores.

Measurement Properties of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey in Stroke

  • A. WestergrenP. Hagell
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
  • 2014
The measurement properties of the MCS-12 in stroke appear reasonable unless milder mental health problems are of interest, whereas those of the PCS-12 are less acceptable.

Beware of the origin of numbers: Standard scoring of the SF‐12 and SF‐36 summary measures distorts measurement and score interpretations

It is recommended that the standard SF-12 scoring algorithm be abandoned in favor of alternatives that provide more valid representations of physical and mental health, of which raw sum scores appear the simplest.

Assessment of the validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of Short Form 12 (SF-12)

This study provides the first evidence that SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of HrQoL in Indonesian middle-aged and older adults.



Validating the SF-36 health survey questionnaire: new outcome measure for primary care.

The SF-36 was able to detect low levels of ill health in patients who had scored 0 (good health) on the Nottingham health profile and is a promising new instrument for measuring health perception in a general population.

The MOS 36‐Item Short‐Form Health Survey (SF‐36): II. Psychometric and Clinical Tests of Validity in Measuring Physical and Mental Health Constructs

Cross-sectional data from the Medical Outcomes Study were analyzed to test the validity of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scales as measures of physical and mental health constructs and found the social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions scales had the most complex interpretation.

Comparison of methods for the scoring and statistical analysis of SF-36 health profile and summary measures: summary of results from the Medical Outcomes Study.

Results suggest that the two summary measures may be useful in most studies and that their empiric validity, relative to the best SF-36 scale, will depend on the application.

The validity and relative precision of MOS short- and long-form health status scales and Dartmouth COOP charts. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study.

Variations in RP across methods and concepts were linked to differences in the coarseness of measurement scales, reliability, and content (including the effects of chart illustrations).

Comparisons of the Costs and Quality of Norms for the SF-36 Health Survey Collected by Mail Versus Telephone Interview: Results From a National Survey

Norms for mail and telephone versions of the SF-36 survey are provided for use in interpreting individual and group scores, and reports of chronic conditions were more frequent, for mail than telephone respondents.

Evaluating Translations of Health Status Questionnaires: Methods From the IQOLA Project

Data analyses from Sweden and the United Kingdom, as well as other research cited, support the feasibility of cross-cultural health measurement using the SF-36.

Scales for measuring general health perceptions.

  • J. Ware
  • Medicine
    Health services research
  • 1976
The construction and testing of eight health perception scales from 32 items on a standardized survey instrument designed for self-administration, the Health Perceptions Questionnaire (Form II), revealed that the scales are valid, reliable, and stable over time for diverse populations.

Improving the quality of the NCQA (National Committee for Quality Assurance) Annual Member Health Care Survey Version 1.0.

It was found that the addition of "No Experience" and "No Opinion" response options to the majority of satisfaction items reduced the random error associated with informed responses and produced statistically significant higher correlations with the global satisfaction items relative to the standard form items.

Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study.

For eight of nine common chronic medical conditions, patients with the condition showed markedly worse physical, role, and social functioning; mental health; health perceptions; and/or bodily pain compared with patients with no chronic conditions.