We aim to assess the diagnostic utility of the combination of a three phase bone scintigraphy (3FBS) and scintigraphy with Fab'antigranulocyte fragments-99mTc (Sulesomab, Leukoscan) in patients with painful joint replacements. We studied 29 patients (22 women and 7 men with mean age 64 years) with knee (15) and hip (14) prosthesis. Scintigraphy was performed with a Siemens Orbiter 75 gammacamera with all purpose collimator. 3FBS was performed as usual with 740 MBq of MDP-99mTc. Sulesomab images were obtained at 1 and 4 hours following injection of 740 MBq, with 300,000 cts per view (knee) and 500,000 cts per view (hip). Both scintigraphic studies were interpreted visually by two nuclear medicine physicians with a 0, 1, 2, 3 score corresponding to normal or mild, moderate or intense hyperactivity respectively. Interpretation criteria for bone infection was Sulesomab uptake grade 2 or 3 in a moderate or large sized area, with congruent hyperactivity on the bone scan. Grade 1 uptake with Sulesomab was considered nonspecific associated to nonseptic conditions. The frequent pattern of uptake in synovial femoral tissue (cap shape sign) in knee prosthesis was considered nonspecific. Diagnostic confirmation procedures were surgery and culture (9) and follow-up (20). All six septic joints were correctly identified. A false positive result was obtained in a case of mechanical loosening in the knee. Negative studies were very helpful in the exclusion of infection. Our conclusion is that sensitivity is high, 100%, and that a normal or grade 1 Sulesomab image makes the presence of infection improbable.