Could retinoids be a potential treatment for rheumatic diseases?
Monocyte migration and activation are regulated by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Prior studies have shown MCP-1 expression is modulated by a variety of ligands that act through extracellular receptors. In the current study, we show 9-cis retinoic acid (RA), a ligand for the nuclear hormone receptor retinoid X receptor (RXR) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), markedly induces the expression of MCP-1. In human THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells cultured with RA (0.05 to 500 nmol/L), MCP-1 expression was induced rapidly, significantly, and dose-dependently by as much as 165-fold. MCP-1 RNA level was also increased in RA-treated cells. Expression of PPARgamma, a heterodimer partner of RXR, is also markedly induced by RA in THP-1 cells. However, BRL49653, a PPARgamma ligand, failed to induce MCP-1 secretion either alone or to modify the expression level induced by RA. In contrast, BRL49653 significantly increased MCP-1 (biotinylated MCP-1) binding to THP-1 cells, whereas RA had no effect. Other peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands, 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone (PPARgamma), Wy14,643 (PPARalpha), and PD195599 (PPARbeta) inhibited the induction of MCP-1 by RA. RA's effect on MCP-1 expression in human elutriated monocytes were similar to that observed in the THP-1 cells. These studies identify RA as a nuclear signal for MCP-1 induction in undifferentiated human monocytic cells. These studies also suggest monocyte MCP-1 expression induced through RA may modulate cell migration.