Carbohydrate intake during early pregnancy is inversely associated with abnormal glucose challenge test results in Japanese pregnant women.
OBJECTIVE To examine whether the 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT) is associated with perinatal outcomes in women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of 13,789 women who received the GCT and did not have a diagnosis of GDM at the University of California, San Francisco UCSF. GCT values were categorized and examined as predictors of perinatal morbidity using chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for maternal characteristics. RESULTS In women with an elevated GCT but without GDM, the odds of preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and elevated birth weight were increased. The odds of large-for-gestational age status were increased with aOR 2.0 (95% CI 1.38-2.90) in the 160-179 mg/dl group. The odds of shoulder dystocia was increased with aOR 3.35 (CI 1.03-10.88) in the ≥180 mg/dl group. CONCLUSION In women without GDM, elevated 50-gram GCT values were associated with higher odds of perinatal morbidity. These findings further support evidence that impaired glucose tolerance is a continuum with possible associated adverse outcomes even at mild ranges; additional research is required to investigate appropriate interventions for women with abnormal screens for GDM.