5. Benzodiazepines in anxiety disorders: managing therapeutics and dependence

  title={5. Benzodiazepines in anxiety disorders: managing therapeutics and dependence},
  author={Trevor R. Norman and Steven Ellen and Graham D. Burrows},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
Psychological therapies are the key to solving anxiety, but drug therapies have a place in controlling symptoms in patients with serious anxiety disorders 
Pharmacotherapy of anxious disorders
A short epidemiological survey is given for anxious disorders including: general anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social anxiety and post‐traumatic stress disorder.
Depression and anxiety: pharmacological treatment in general practice.
An overview of important practical issues to consider when prescribing medications for anxiety and depression is provided.
Anxiety: a systematic review of neurobiology, traditional pharmaceuticals and novel alternatives from medicinal plants.
The current issue about anxiety disorders is reviewed, covering general aspects such as basic epidemiology and classification, an overview of the pharmacological treatments employed and the current search for natural anxiolytics.
Prescribing patterns of benzodiazepines : a comparative study between two provinces in South Africa
A comparative study between two provinces in South Africa shows similarities in the prescribing patterns of benzodiazepines, with a focus on Johannesburg and Durban being the most common destinations for these drugs.
Anxiety disorder: An overview
The underlying pathophysiology and drug therapy of anxiety disorder is revealed, and many gamma-aminobutyric acid facilitating drugs since the 1960s for anxiety treatment are revealed.
Pharmacological treatment in general practice
This article aims to provide a practical approach for GPs in prescribing psychotropic medications for depression and anxiety, and recommends four key questions forGPs to consider.
15. Treatmets that workin anxiety disorders
In this article, alt ernative and useful drug therapies will be mentioned because they tend to be the treatments used most often in general practice (details of dru g therapies can be found in other articles in this series).
An examination of the effectiveness of acupuncture as an adjunct to an alcohol and other drugs AOD treatment program : a pilot study
Australia’s first hospital based study examining the effectiveness of acupuncture as an adjunct to an alcohol and other drugs treatment program, findings suggest acupuncture is effective in treatingalcohol and other drug dependencies.
Improving Reproductive Health in the Philippines
In 2004, Natasha Bobic raised concerns in an Australian Domestic and Family Violence Clearinghouse Topic Paper that ‘...parental abuse is peripheral in discussions of family violence...’ (2004, p.
Amygdala protein kinase C epsilon regulates corticotropin‐releasing factor and anxiety‐like behavior
It is reported that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) null mutant mice, which show reduced anxiety‐like behavior, have reduced levels of CRF messenger RNA and peptide in the amygdala.


Antidepressants in Panic Disorders
  • M. Liebowitz
  • Psychology, Medicine
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 1989
The efficacy of antidepressants for panic disorders has had major effects on understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of anxiety disorders, but important issues remain unresolved, such as the mechanisms of therapeutic effect, optimal duration of therapy to minimise relapse, and the interaction of medication with cognitive behavioural treatments.
The drug treatment of anxiety.
  • J. Rosenbaum
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 1982
The therapeutic benefits obtained from antianxiety medication, weighed against the adverse effects, have been a matter of considerable public controversy and more rigorous and extensive surveys have concluded that reckless overprescribing is rare and that these agents are relatively safe.
Is Buspirone Effective for Panic Disorder?
Buspirone was compared with imipramine and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder in an 8-week, double-blind controlled study and was not significantly superior to placebo in its antipanic or anxiolytic effects in panic disorder patients.
Rebound insomnia: a new clinical syndrome.
Rebound insomnia followed the withdrawal of three benzodiazepine hypnotic drugs, each of which had been administered in a single nightly dose for only short-term periods. The intense worsening of
Benzodiazepine dependence. A review of the evidence.
The withdrawal syndrome is characterised by withdrawal symptoms on stopping treatment; these include perceptual disturbances, epileptic seizures, weight loss, insomnia and autonomic symptoms, and may be associated with altered sensitivity of benzodiazepine receptors.
Anxiety in elderly patients. A comparison of azapirones and benzodiazepines.
Proper selection of therapeutic intervention allows clinicians to relieve symptoms with minimal risk of adverse effects in elderly patients, as the elderly constitute the most rapidly growing segment of the population of many developed nations.
Differential Diagnosis and Drug Treatment of Panic Disorder, Anxiety and Depression
Although their use has declined in recent years, due to concerns about tolerance and dependence, benzodiazepines have proven efficacy in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder.
Antidepressants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. A placebo-controlled comparison of imipramine, trazodone, and diazepam.
The results of the study need replication, but suggest a potentially important role for antidepressants, particularly imipramine, in patients suffering from GAD.
Psychological Treatment of Generalised Anxiety Disorder
A balanced appraisal of the value of psychological therapy with this common condition requires a fuller description of sample characteristics and more systematic investigation of the clinical significance of treatment effects over the long term.
Behavior therapy for panic disorder.
Ten of 11 patients who met DSM-III criteria for panic disorder were treated with behavior therapy techniques and six of seven mixed phobics showed complete remission or significant improvement of phobias.