4D segmentation algorithm with application to 3D+time image segmentation

@article{Uba20214DSA,
  title={4D segmentation algorithm with application to 3D+time image segmentation},
  author={Markjoe Olunna Uba and Karol Mikula and Seol Ah Park},
  journal={Japan Journal of Industrial and Applied Mathematics},
  year={2021},
  volume={40},
  pages={109-139}
}
In this paper, we introduce and study a novel segmentation method for 4D images based on surface evolution governed by a nonlinear partial differential equation, the generalized subjective surface equation. The new method uses 4D digital image information and information from a thresholded 4D image in a local neighborhood. Thus, the 4D image segmentation is accomplished by defining the edge detector function’s input as the weighted sum of the norm of gradients of presmoothed 4D image and norm… 

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