40 MHz Doppler characterization of umbilical and dorsal aortic blood flow in the early mouse embryo.

Physiological study of the developing mouse circulation has lagged behind advances in molecular cardiology. Using an innovative high-frequency Doppler system, we noninvasively characterized circulatory hemodynamics in early mouse embryos. We used image-guided 43 MHz pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasound to study the umbilical artery and vein, or dorsal aorta… (More)