4-twist helix snake to maintain polarization in multi-GeV proton rings

@article{Antoulinakis20134twistHS,
  title={4-twist helix snake to maintain polarization in multi-GeV proton rings},
  author={Foivos Antoulinakis and Emily A. Ljungman and An Tai and Christine A. Aidala and Ernest D. Courant and A. D. Krisch and Wolfgang Lorenzon and P. D. Myers and Richard Stephen Raymond and Dennis W. Sivers and M A. Leonova and Yaroslav S. Derbenev and V. S. Morozov and A. M. Kondratenko},
  journal={Physical review accelerators and beams},
  year={2013},
  volume={20},
  pages={091003}
}
Solenoid Siberian snakes have successfully maintained polarization in particle rings below 1 GeV, but never in multi-GeV rings because the Lorentz contraction of a solenoid's integral B dl would require impractically long high-field solenoids. High energy rings, such as Brookhaven's 255 GeV Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), use only odd multiples of pairs of transverse B-field Siberian snakes directly opposite each other. When it became impractical to use a pair of Siberian Snakes in… 

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