The control of hand equilibrium trajectories in multi-joint arm movements
- T. Flash
- Biological Cybernetics
Advanced display technologies have made the virtual explora-<lb>tion of relatively complex models feasible in many applica-<lb>tions. Unfortunately, only a few human interfaces allow<lb>natural interaction with the environment. Moreover, in surgi-<lb>cal applications, such realistic interaction requires real-time<lb>rendering of volumetric data − placing an overwhelming per-<lb>formance burden on the system. We report on a collaboration<lb>of a unique interdisciplinary group developing a virtual real-<lb>ity system that provides intuitive interaction with complex vol-<lb>ume data by employing real-time realistic volume rendering<lb>and convincing force feedback (haptic) sensations. We<lb>describe our rendering methods and the haptic devices in<lb>detail and demonstrate the utilization of this system in the<lb>real-world application of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS)<lb>simulation.