4 – The Cornified Envelope: A Key Structure of Terminally Differentiating Keratinocytes

@inproceedings{Reichert19934T,
  title={4 – The Cornified Envelope: A Key Structure of Terminally Differentiating Keratinocytes},
  author={Uwe Reichert and Serge Michel and Rainer Schmidt},
  year={1993}
}
Initiation of assembly of the cell envelope barrier structure of stratified squamous epithelia.
TLDR
The data document that CE assembly is initiated along the plasma membrane between desmosomes by head- to-tail and head-to-head cross-linking of involucrin to itself and to envoplakin and perhaps periplakin, and stress the importance of juxtaposition of membranes, transglutaminases, and involUCrin and envoplakia in the initiation of CE assembly of stratified squamous epithelia. Expand
Expression of involucrin by ocular surface epithelia of patients with benign and malignant disorders
TLDR
The subcellular immunolocalization of involucrin in the ocular SCC may help in evaluating the differentiation, i.e., malignancy, of neoplastic cells. Expand
Bricks and mortar of the epidermal barrier
TLDR
A number of diseases which display defective epidermal barrier function are the result of genetic defects of the synthesis of either CE proteins, the transglutaminase 1 cross-linking enzyme, or defective metabolism of skin lipids. Expand
Structural organization of cornified cell envelopes and alterations in inherited skin disorders
TLDR
It is revealed that abnormal cornified cell envelope synthesis is significantly involved in the pathophysiology of certain inherited keratodermas and reflects perturbations in the complex yet highly orderly process of cornification cell envelope formation in normal skin biology. Expand
Differential expression and cell envelope incorporation of small proline-rich protein 1 in different cornified epithelia.
TLDR
Study of the CEs of two different keratinizing epithelia of mouse, with particular focus on their contents of loricrin and the small proline-rich proteins (SPRs), predicts the content ofloricrin in forestomach CEs to be very high, as in the epidermis, and accompanied by approximately 18% content of total SPRs. Expand
Protein composition of cornified cell envelopes of epidermal keratinocytes.
TLDR
The amino acid compositions of isolated CEs are determined and then modelled in terms of linear combinations of the candidate proteins, showing that stratum corneum CEs have a loricrin content of 65-70% (w/w) in human, and 80-85% in mouse. Expand
Changes in the expression of epidermal differentiation markers at sites where cultured epithelial autografts were transplanted onto wounds from burn scar excision
TLDR
Results showed that wound healing continued at a molecular level until the end of stage 3, and the recovery of involucrin was delayed compared with that of other markers. Expand
Characterization of TG2 and TG1–TG2 double knock-out mouse epidermis
TLDR
A key role of TG1 in skin differentiation and CE assembly is confirmed and it is demonstrated that TG2 is not essential for CE assembly and skin formation. Expand
Computational modeling of biological barriers
One of the most important aspects for all life on this planet is the act to keep their biological processes in a state where they do not reach equilibrium. One part in the upholding of this imbalanExpand
Association of gap junction beta 2 and transglutaminase 1 gene expression with canine atopic dermatitis.
TLDR
The present study demonstrates the expression of gap junction beta 2 and transglutaminase 1 in CAD, the first report on the association of cell junction and trans glutaminases 1 genes with CAD. Expand
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References

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Beiträge zur Eiweißstruktur des Hautepithels
  • L. Szodoray
  • Medicine
  • Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis
  • 2005
Cellular envelopes of keratinized cells of the human epidermis
  • K. Hashimoto
  • Biology
  • Archiv für klinische und experimentelle Dermatologie
  • 2004
TLDR
Evidence is presented that the marginal band is a de novo product precipitated along the cytoplasmic side of the original plasma membrane, has often outer and inner delimiting lines of high electron density, and represents the true cellular envelope of the cornified human epidermal cells. Expand
Epidermal and hair follicle trans glutaminases and crosslinking in skin
TLDR
Epidermal and hair follicle transglutaminases crosslink structural proteins in the skin by epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine bonds which produces protein polymers that are extremely insoluble and, until recently, difficult to characterize. Expand
Isolation of corneocyte envelopes from porcine epidermis
TLDR
Electron microscopy showed that the cell envelopes retained both the cross-linked protein envelope and its attached lipid envelope, which provides isolated corneocyte envelopes suitable for studying both the protein and lipid components of this compound sheath. Expand
Possible activation mechanisms of transglutaminase in epidermis
Cornifin, a cross-linked envelope precursor in keratinocytes that is down-regulated by retinoids.
TLDR
Observations suggest that the protein encoded by SQ37 participates in the assembly of the cross-linked envelope in squamous differentiating cells, and is mediated by transglutaminase type I. Expand
Expression of loricrin is negatively controlled by retinoic acid in human epidermis reconstructed in vitro.
TLDR
The results provide a molecular basis for the inhibition of cornified envelope formation by retinoic acid and the regulation of loricrin synthesis is different from that of another envelope precursor, involucrin, which does not seem to be significantly modulated by retinosic acid. Expand
Keratinocyte transglutaminase: differentiation marker and member of an extended family.
TLDR
Keratinocyte transglutaminase is a promising marker for helping to elucidate the molecular basis by which keratinocyte differentiation is elicited or altered, and is a likely mechanism by which new members of this family may arise that assume a diversity of functions. Expand
Apoptosis: a potential role for cytosolic transglutaminase and its importance in tumour progression.
TLDR
A direct relationship was found between measured cytosolic activity and the levels of the endogenous product of transglutaminase, the protein crosslink epsilon(gamma-glutamyl)lysine, which is found in highly crosslinked apoptotic envelopes isolated from variant cell lines. Expand
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