Specific high affinity binding of [3H]-estradiol by 0.5 M KCl extracts of chick liver nuclei is substantially increased by estradiol injection of the immature chick. The effect is observed shortly after estradiol injection, while the estradiol-induced production of serum phosphoproteins (vitellogenic response) is not detectable until about 24 hr. Cycloheximide given 90 min before estradiol inhibits the increase in nuclear binding for 12-15 hr. At 24-48 hr the levels of nuclear binding are similar to those in the estradiol-treated animals not given cycloheximide, but serum phosphoprotein levels are depressed by about 80% at 48 hr. By 75 hr however the serum of the cycloheximide-treated estrogenized chicks contains about twice as much phosphoprotein as does serum of chicks given estradiol alone. It is suggested that the inhibition of protein synthesis for 12-15 hr delays the vitellogenic response until sufficient levels of nuclear [3H]-estradiol binding protein can be synthesized. A correlation between the levels of nuclear [3H]-estradiol binding at 24 hr and phosphoprotein at 48 hr is shown in a dose-response experiment. In vitro, nafoxidine-HCl (Upjohn 11,100 A) inhibits binding of [3H]-estradiol by the chick liver nuclear extracts. In vivo, a single injection of nafoxidine with estradiol inhibits phosphoprotein production. Injection of nafoxidine alone results in a small but significant increase in [3H]-estradiol binding by nuclear extracts, but it is not estrogenic. A possible interpretation is that nafoxidine transfers low levels of a putative cytosol receptor to the nucleus, but is unable to induce the amplification mechanism required to give the levels of nuclear estradiol-binding protein needed for the vitellogenic response.