Traditional methods of dielectrophoretic separation using planar microelectrodes have a common problem: the dielectrophoretic force, which is proportional to nabla|E|2, rapidly decays as the distance from the electrodes increases. Recent advances in carbon microelectromechanical systems have allowed researchers to create carbon 3-D structures with relative ease. These developments have opened up new possibilities in the fabrication of complex 3-D shapes. In this paper, the use of 3-D electrode designs for high-throughput dielectrophoretic separation/concentration/filtration systems is investigated. 3-D electrode designs are beneficial because (i) they provide a method of extending the electric field within the fluid. (ii) The 3-D electrodes can be designed so that the velocity field coincides with the electric field distribution. (iii) Novel electrode designs, not based on planar electrodes designs, can be developed and used. The electric field distribution and velocity fields of 3-D electrode designs that are simple extensions of 2-D designs are presented, and two novel electrode designs that are not based on 2-D electrode designs are introduced. Finally, a proof-of-concept experimental device for extraction of nanofibrous carbon from canola oil is demonstrated.