# 3‐manifolds efficiently bound 4‐manifolds

@article{Costantino20083manifoldsEB, title={3‐manifolds efficiently bound 4‐manifolds}, author={Francesco Costantino and Dylan P. Thurston}, journal={Journal of Topology}, year={2008}, volume={1}, pages={703-745} }

It has been known since 1954 that every 3-manifold bounds a 4-manifold. Thus, for instance, every 3-manifold has a surgery diagram. There are several proofs of this fact, but little attention has been paid to the complexity of the 4-manifold produced. Given a 3-manifold M 3 of complexity n, we construct a 4-manifold bounded by M of complexity , where the ‘complexity’ of a piecewise-linear manifold is the minimum number of n-simplices in a triangulation.The proof goes through the notion of…

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