3,5‐Diiodo‐L‐thyronine powerfully reduces adiposity in rats by increasing the burning of fats

  title={3,5‐Diiodo‐L‐thyronine powerfully reduces adiposity in rats by increasing the burning of fats},
  author={Antonia Lanni and Maria Moreno and Assunta Lombardi and Pieter de Lange and Elena Silvestri and Maurizio Ragni and Paola Farina and Gabriella Chieffi Baccari and Pupah Fallahi and Alessandro Antonelli and Fernando Goglia},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
The effect of thyroid hormones on metabolism has long supported their potential as drugs to stimulate fat reduction, but the concomitant induction of a thyrotoxic state has greatly limited their use. Recent evidence suggests that 3,5‐diiodo‐L‐thyronine (T2), a naturally occurring iodothyronine, stimulates metabolic rate via mechanisms involving the mitochondrial apparatus. We examined whether this effect would result in reduced energy storage. Here, we show that T2 administration to rats… 

3,5 Diiodo-l-Thyronine (T2) Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Overweight Male Rats Housed at Thermoneutrality

The results indicate that, among others, the browning may be another cellular/molecular mechanism by which T2 exerts its beneficial effects of contrast to overweight and of reduction of fat mass in rats subjected to HFD.

Effects of 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Administration on the Liver of High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

The results show that in the liver of HFD rats, T2 prevents both lipid accumulation and oxidative stress associated with increased fat metabolism, and shows that HFD induces liver lipid peroxidation and stimulates the activity of enzymes involved in hydrogen peroxide metabolism, catalase in particular.

3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) Administration Affects Visceral Adipose Tissue Inflammatory State in Rats Receiving Long-Lasting High-Fat Diet

T2 is able to counteract some adverse effects caused by a long-lasting HFD and to produce beneficial effects on inflammation, and Irisin and SIRT1 pathway may represent a mechanism underlying the above described effects.

Nonthyrotoxic Prevention of Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance by 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine in Rats

T2, by activating SIRT1, triggers a cascade of events resulting in improvement of the serum lipid profile, prevention of fat accumulation, and, finally, Prevention of diet-induced insulin resistance in rats.

3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Exerts Metabolically Favorable Effects on Visceral Adipose Tissue of Rats Receiving a High-Fat Diet

The prevention of VAT mass-gain by 3,5-T2 occurred through different molecular pathways that, together with the previously reported stimulation of resting metabolism and liver fatty acid oxidation, are associated with an anti adipogenic/lipogenic potential and positively impact on tissue health.

3,5‐Diiodo‐L‐thyronine prevents high‐fat‐diet‐induced insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle through metabolic and structural adaptations

  • M. MorenoE. Silvestri F. Goglia
  • Biology, Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2011
3,5‐Diiodo‐L‐thyronine prevents high‐fat diet‐induced insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle through metabolic and structural adaptations and highlights T2 as a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of diet‐ induced metabolic dysfunctions.

3,5 Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) Does Not Prevent Hepatic Steatosis or Insulin Resistance in Fat-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats

In Sprague Dawley rats fed an unsaturated fat diet, T2 administration failed to improve NAFLD or whole body insulin sensitivity, and there was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin signaling, but this was not associated with significant differences in hepatics insulin action.

Metabolic effects of 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine

It can be hypothesized that T2, by acting mainly on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, might be able to prevent and revert the tissue damages and hepatic steatosis induced by a hyperlipidic diet and a concomitant reduction in the circulating levels LDL and triglycerides as well.

Effects of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine on the liver of high fat diet fed rats

Data show that multiple administrations of high doses of T2 to rats fed diets rich in lipid inhibit TSH secretion and prevent the onset of liver steatosis in these animals.



Calorigenic effect of diiodothyronines in the rat.

The results suggest that T8 isomers might be mediators of the direct thyroid hormone regulation of energy metabolism and on the oxidative capacity of tissues that are metabolically very active.

Demonstration of in vivo metabolic effects of 3,5-di-iodothyronine.

It is suggested that 3,5-T2 exerts metabolic effects on energy expenditure, on both lipid beta-oxidation and leucine metabolism in hypothyroid rats, and is a metabolically active iodothyronine.

3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine (T2) has selective thyromimetic effects in vivo and in vitro.

The data confirm that T2 has significant thyromimetic activity, and that this activity is selective both in vivo and in vitro, but there are no data to support a selective central effect.

How the thyroid controls metabolism in the rat: different roles for triiodothyronine and diiodothyronines

The results indicate that T2s and T3 exert different effects on RM, which are rapid and rapid and possibly mediated by their direct interaction with mitochondria, and at least partly attributable to a modulation of the cellularity of tissues that are metabolically very active.

Biological effects of 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2)

  • F. Goglia
  • Biology, Medicine
    Biochemistry (Moscow)
  • 2005
The accumulated evidence permits the conclusion that the actions of T2 do not simply mimic those of T3 but instead are specific actions exerted through mechanisms that are independent of those actuated by T3 and do not involve THR.

3,5-Di-iodo-L-thyronine suppresses TSH in rats in vivo and in rat pituitary fragments in vitro.

3,5-Di-iodo-L-thyronine was tested to determine whether it has a TSH suppressive effect in rats in vivo and in rat pituitary fragments in vitro, and showed significant effects on body and organ weights as well as pellet intake.

Control of energy metabolism by iodothyronines

An increasing number of studies has revealed that TH active in the regulation of energy metabolism include not only T3, but also other iodothyronines present in the biological fluids, such as 3,5-diiodothyronine (3, 5-T2), which may make it possible to explain some of the effects exerted by TH on energy metabolism that cannot easily be attributed to T3.

Early Treatment of Obese (ob/ob) Mice with Triiodothyronine Increases Oxygen Consumption and Temperature and Decreases Body Fat Content

  • Soo-Sung OhM. Kaplan
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1994
The increased oxidative metabolism due to T3 treatment was probably via the change of metabolic activity of the total lean body mass or the specific metabolically active tissues in the ob/ob mice, such as brown adipose tissue, liver, or muscle.

Rapid stimulation of hepatic oxygen consumption by 3,5-di-iodo-L-thyronine.

A new scheme of regulation of mitochondrial activity is proposed: T2 acts rapidly and directly via a mitochondrial pathway, whereas T3 exerts its long-term action indirectly by induction of specific enzymes.