2D:4D finger-length ratios in children and adults with gender identity disorder

  title={2D:4D finger-length ratios in children and adults with gender identity disorder},
  author={Madeleine S. C. Wallien and Kenneth J. Zucker and Thomas D Steensma and Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis},
  journal={Hormones and Behavior},

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2D:4D Finger Length Ratios in Individuals with Gender Dysphoria.
Evidence is presented that the AFB-GD individuals were exposed to testosterone in the prenatal period, and the 2D:4D digit ratio, which is considered to be a morphological indicator of exposure to testosterone at birth, in individuals with GD.
2D:4D Digit Ratios in Adults with Gender Dysphoria: A Comparison to Their Unaffected Same-Sex Heterosexual Siblings, Cisgender Heterosexual Men, and Cisgender Heterosexual Women.
We compared gender dysphoria (GD) patients and their same-sex siblings in terms of their 2D:4D ratios, which may reflect prenatal exposure to androgen, one of the possible etiological mechanisms
Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation: Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Number of Older Siblings
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The findings are consistent with a biologic basis for transgender identity and the possibilities that FTM gender identity is affected by prenatal androgen activity but that MTF transgender identity has a different basis.
The relationship between second-to-fourth digit ratio and female gender identity.
The finger length ratio 2D : 4D in GID-FtM was significantly lower than in female controls in the right hand and 2D: 4D showed a positive correlation with GIS score.
2D:4D Suggests a Role of Prenatal Testosterone in Gender Dysphoria
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This original investigation and the updated meta-analysis clarify the association between transgender identity and 2D:4D indicating the influence of prenatal androgen on the development of gender identity in subjects born as males.
The Relationship Between Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sexual Orientation in Men from China
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The results indirectly point to the possibility of a weak influence of reduced prenatal testosterone as an etiological factor in the multifactorially influenced development of MtF GID, where the development of FtM GID seems even more unlikely to be notably influenced by prenatal testosterone.
Sexual Dimorphism in the Prenatal Digit Ratio (2D:4D)
The 2D:4D ratio, thus, seems to increase after birth in both men and women, with the second digit growing faster than the fourth digit (positive allometric growth of digit two) and perhaps more so in women than in men.
On the Relation Between 2D:4D and Sex-Dimorphic Personality Traits
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Masculinized Finger Length Patterns in Human Males and Females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Results are consistent with the idea that prenatal androgen exposure reduces the 2D:4D and plays a role in the establishment of the sex difference in human finger length patterns, and finger lengths may offer a retrospective marker of perinatal androgens exposure in humans.
A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder.
The rates of GID persistence and bisexual/homosexual sexual orientation were substantially higher than base rates in the general female population derived from epidemiological or survey studies and there was some evidence of a "dosage" effect, with girls who were more cross-sex typed in their childhood behavior more likely to be gender dysphoric at follow-up and to have been classified as bisexual/Homosexual in behavior.
Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children.
Both boys and girls in the persistence group were more extremely cross-gendered in behavior and feelings and were more likely to fulfill gender identity disorder (GID) criteria in childhood than the children in the other two groups.
Fetal development of the hand, digits and digit ratio (2D:4D).
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