2D:4D and Sexually Dimorphic Facial Characteristics

  title={2D:4D and Sexually Dimorphic Facial Characteristics},
  author={Robert Philip Burriss and Anthony C. Little and Emma C Nelson},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
The second-to-fourth-digit ratio (2D:4D) may be related to prenatal testosterone and estrogen levels and pubertal face growth. Several studies have recently provided evidence that 2D:4D is associated with other-rated facial masculinity and dominance, but not with facialmetric measures of masculinity. We found that localized face shape differences, shown here to be sexually dimorphic and related to ratings of dominance, were associated with direct and indirect measurements of 2D:4D. In this… 
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and male facial attractiveness: new data and a meta-analysis.
  • Johannes Hönekopp
  • Psychology
    Evolutionary psychology : an international journal of evolutionary approaches to psychology and behavior
  • 2013
2D:4D studies offer no convincing evidence at present that prenatal T has a positive effect on male facial attractiveness, and a consideration of confidence intervals shows that, at present, a theoretically meaningful relationship between 2D: 4D and male facial aesthetics cannot be ruled out.
Prenatal sex hormones, digit ratio, and face shape in adult males.
Faces tended to look more masculine as 2D:4D decreased, suggesting a biologically plausible link between prenatal androgen exposure and the development of male facial characteristics.
Second-to-fourth digit ratio and facial shape in boys: the lower the digit ratio, the more robust the face
Using geometric morphometrics, a significant relationship between facial shape and 2D : 4D before the onset of puberty is shown, adding to previous evidence that certain adult male facial characteristics that elicit attributions of masculinity and dominance are determined very early in ontogeny.
Association of the digit ratio (2D:4D) with sexually dimorphic morphological traits
The association of 2D:4D ratio with morphological signs of masculinity/femininity within male and female samples were revealed only as a trend, which was more distinct for the functional indicators (handgrip strength).
Digit Ratio ( 2 D : 4 D ) and Male Facial Attractiveness : New Data and a Meta-Analysis
Digit ratio (2D:4D) appears to correlate negatively with prenatal testosterone (T) effects in humans. As T probably increases facial masculinity, which in turn might be positively related to male
A Study on Orbital Linear Measurements among Bengalee Population
It is easily highlited that orbital linear measurements which clinically represents the measurement for assessing ocular Hypertelorism, are strongly correlated but in case of male 2D:4D ratio as a proxy measurement for prenatal androgen level is not correlated with Orbital regionlinear measurements which denotes that prenatal hormonal environment do not affect the orbital measurements.
Prenatal testosterone exposure is related to sexually dimorphic facial morphology in adulthood
This study provides the first direct evidence of a link between prenatal testosterone exposure and human facial structure and shows no statistically significant relationship with gendered facial morphology.
Sexual orientation and the second to fourth finger length ratio: a meta-analysis in men and women.
It is found that heterosexual women had higher (more feminine) left- and right-hand 2D:4D than did lesbians, but there was no difference between heterosexual and gay men.
Testosterone responses to competition in men are related to facial masculinity
It is demonstrated that, after experimentally determined success in a competitive task, men with more a masculine facial structure show higher levels of circulating testosterone than men with less masculine faces, indicating that a man's facial structure may afford important information about the functioning of his endocrine system.


Second to fourth digit ratio and face shape
The results suggest that studies on the perception of facial characteristics need to consider differential effects of prenatal hormone exposure and actual chromosomal gender in order to understand how characteristics have come to be rated ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine” and the consequences of these perceptions in terms of mate preferences.
Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance
High prenatal levels of testosterone serve to ‘organize’ male facial features to subsequently reflect dominance and masculine characteristics presumably activated during puberty, and attractiveness is not directly related to testosterone levels.
2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol.
Photocopies Yield Lower Digit Ratios (2D:4D) Than Direct Finger Measurements
Differences in digit ratios obtained from photocopies and direct measurements, and these differences arise from length differences recorded from the different protocols, should not be combined within one study nor should they be used together in comparative studies.
The 2nd:4th digit ratio, sexual dimorphism, population differences, and reproductive success. evidence for sexually antagonistic genes?
  • ManningBarley Szwed
  • Psychology
    Evolution and human behavior : official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
  • 2000
Three-dimensional facial growth studied by optical surface scanning.
Growth in facial height was greatest, and Dimensions changed more than reported by cephalometric studies, possibly as this study included the soft tissues.
Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans.
  • J. ManningR. Taylor
  • Education
    Evolution and human behavior : official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
  • 2001
The relationship between sexual dimorphism in human faces and fluctuating asymmetry
The results provide validation of the ability to measure aspects of asymmetry that are perceived to be symmetrical, and aspects of sexual dimorphism that is perceived as feminine in females and masculine in males, and the relationships between trait ratings and measurements.
Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness
The results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans.