25Gb/s 3.6pJ/b and 15Gb/s 1.37pJ/b VCSEL-based optical links in 90nm CMOS

@article{Proesel201225Gbs3A,
  title={25Gb/s 3.6pJ/b and 15Gb/s 1.37pJ/b VCSEL-based optical links in 90nm CMOS},
  author={Jonathan E. Proesel and Clint Schow and Alexander V. Rylyakov},
  journal={2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference},
  year={2012},
  pages={418-420}
}
Future high-performance computing systems require sub-2pJ/bit power efficiencies at >;10Gb/s [1-2]. The best reported optical link efficiencies at these data rates are ≥2.5pJ/bit [1-4]. This paper describes two VCSEL-based multimode (MM) fiber optical links achieving sub-2pJ/bit power efficiency from 15Gb/s to 22Gb/s. The links realized in 90nm CMOS share the same TX but use two different RXs that explore different aspects of the power/BW/area tradeoff. 

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