20 years of developments in optical frequency comb technology and applications

  title={20 years of developments in optical frequency comb technology and applications},
  author={Tara M. Fortier and Esther Baumann},
  journal={Communications Physics},
Optical frequency combs were developed nearly two decades ago to support the world’s most precise atomic clocks. Acting as precision optical synthesizers, frequency combs enable the precise transfer of phase and frequency information from a high-stability reference to hundreds of thousands of tones in the optical domain. This versatility, coupled with near-continuous spectroscopic coverage from microwave frequencies to the extreme ultra-violet, has enabled precision measurement capabilities in… 
A robust, low-cost mode-locked laser oscillator for deployed frequency comb sensor applications
1. Introduction Frequency combs have been investigated in the laboratory over the course of the last 25 years in a wide range of implementations and applications including but not limited to
Synchronized to an optical atomic clock
An experimental system is introduced with the ability to transfer the precise phase and accuracy of optical clock signals into the electronic domain, while demonstrating a fractional frequency instability of one part in 1018, bringing the superior performance of an optical frequency standard into the microwave regime.
Simple method for mid-infrared optical frequency comb generation with dynamic offset frequency tuning
We present a simple method for mid-infrared optical frequency comb generation based on single-pass femtosecond optical parametric generation that is seeded by a continuous-wave laser. We have
Improving the resolution of comb-based frequency measurements using a track and hold amplifier
The advent of optical frequency standards with ultimate uncertainties in the low 1 × 10 − 18 requires femtosecond frequency combs to support a similar level of resolution in the spectral transfer and
Connection between Optical Frequency Combs and Microwave Frequency Combs Produced by Active-Mode-Locked Lasers Subject to Timing Jitter
Optical frequency combs (OFCs) and microwave frequency combs (MFCs) are of intense interest in fields ranging from metrology to multifrequency light sources. MFCs in particular have attracted
Frequency ratio measurements at 18-digit accuracy using an optical clock network.
  • Physics
  • 2021
An advance in frequency ratio measurements lays the groundwork for future networks of mobile, airborne and remote optical clocks that will be used to test physical laws, perform relativistic geodesy and substantially improve international timekeeping.
InP Photonic Integrated Circuit for 6.7GHz Spaced Optical Frequency Comb Generator
We have demonstrated a novel approach to photonically integrated optical frequency comb generation on Indium Phosphide (InP) using generic foundry platforms. The optical comb utilized a recirculating
PAM4 optical transmission enabled by a 100 GHz quantum dot mode-locked optical frequency comb
Semiconductor mode-locked lasers (MLLs) with extremely high repetition rates are promising optical frequency comb (OFC) sources for their usage as compact, high-efficiency, and low-cost light sources
Cavity-Enhanced Vernier Spectroscopy with a Chip-Scale Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb
Chip-scale optical frequency combs can provide broadband spectroscopy for diagnosing complex organic molecules. They are also promising as miniaturized laser spectrometers in applications ranging
Femtosecond Pulse Generation via an Integrated Electro-Optic Time Lens
Integrated femtosecond pulse and frequency comb sources are critical components for a wide range of applications, including optical atomic clocks, microwave photonics, spectroscopy, optical wave


Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet
The generation of extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs, reaching wavelengths of 40 nanometres, is reported by coupling a high-power near-infrared frequency comb to a robust femtosecond enhancement cavity, and the absolute frequency of the argon transition has been determined by direct frequency comb spectroscopy.
Phase-coherent microwave-to-optical link with a self-referenced microcomb | NIST
Precise measurements of the frequencies of light waves have become common with mode-locked laser frequency combs1. Despite their huge success, optical frequency combs currently remain bulky and
Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser
A compact, broadband, semiconductor frequency comb generator that operates in the mid-infrared, and it is demonstrated that the modes of a continuous-wave, free-running, broadband quantum cascade laser are phase-locked.
Mid-infrared frequency combs
This Review discusses the emerging field of mid-infrared frequency comb generation, including technologies based on novel laser gain media, nonlinear frequency conversion and microresonators, as well
The measurement of optical frequencies
Surprising as it might seem, it is possible to phase-coherently track, synthesize, count and divide optical frequencies of visible laser sources. In essence, the technologies described here now allow
Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator
This work reports a substantially different approach to comb generation, in which equally spaced frequency markers are produced by the interaction between a continuous-wave pump laser of a known frequency with the modes of a monolithic ultra-high-Q microresonator via the Kerr nonlinearity.
A Passion for Precision
  • T. Hansch
  • Physics
    2007 European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the International Quantum Electronics Conference
  • 2007
Summary form only given. Optical frequency combs from mode-locked femtosecond lasers can link optical and microwave frequencies in a single step, and they provide the long missing clockwork for
Recent developments in fiber-based optical frequency comb and its applications
Fiber-based optical frequency combs, characterized by compact configuration and outstanding optical properties, have been developed into state-of-the-art precision instruments which are no longer
Optical frequency/wavelength references
For more than 100 years, optical atomic/molecular frequency references have played important roles in science and technology, and provide standards enabling precision measurements. Frequency-stable
Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs
Abstract It was recently demonstrated that broadband quantum cascade lasers can operate as frequency combs. As such, they operate under direct electrical pumping at both mid-infrared and THz